So far we have identified 296 who died serving with the Anti-Treaty forces.
*The number of those executed are what is termed official executions, men executed after a court-martial. The number of official executions differs, ranging from 77 to 81, both totals are correct. The 77 were members of the Anti-Treaty IRA and 4 civilians, the 4 civilians were:
The information below is taken from various archives, we try to use original source documents whenever possible. We would always advise researching the archives yourself as many websites and authors rely on the ‘everybody knows’ version of history which, since many archives have become more accessible, has proved to be very unreliable.
On the 3rd of March 1922 Lieutenant Fianna Eireann, Limerick City Battalion, died at the County Infirmary, Limerick, from the effects of a gunshot wound accidentally self-inflicted the previous day. He was about 17 and a half years old and was involved in giving instruction in the use of a revolver when he was shot. According to information given Thomas Slattery Junior had served with Na Fianna Éireann from 1916 onwards and during the War of Independence and Truce Period. At the time of his death he was employed by The Limerick Model Steam Laundry Ltd.
On the 10th of April 1922 Volunteer (Lieutenant) Michael Sweeney was shot and mortally wounded in Grafton Street Dublin while being transported in military custody from Beggar’s Bush barracks to Mountjoy Prison, he had been charged with the theft of military vehicles. His escort claimed he attempted to escape from the military lorry he was being transported in, he received a bullet wound to the back of the neck, he was taken to Jervis Street Hospital where he died ten minutes after arrival. He had served with the Irish Volunteers in 1916 as part of the South Dublin Union Garrison and served with the IRA throughout the War of Independence. The inquest jury returned a verdict of accidental death. His brother George was killed in WW1 while serving with the 2nd Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers, he was 19 years old.
On the 11th of April 1922 Volunteer Michael O’Neill, D Company, 2nd Battalion, Mid Limerick Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA, died at Barrington’s Hospital, Limerick from the effects of a gunshot wound accidentally received by him on the 9th of April from a fellow member of the IRA, named as John Hogan, at the New Barracks, Limerick. He was 24 years old and was employed as a Labourer by Michael Lynch, New Road, Thomondgate, Limerick.
On the night of Saturday the 15th of April at about 11.40pm a bomb, believed to be a grenade, exploded in Edward Street, Limerick. Michael O’Connell died from wound received to the abdomen another three men were injured, William Allen, John Gilligan and James O’Connell. All four men were believed to be in the process of making bombs when on accidently exploded.
On the 2nd of May 1922 Volunteer Joseph Campbell, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died from the effects of a wound accidentally received from a fellow IRA member while on guard duty with the IRA garrison at 44 Parnell Square, Dublin on the 9th of April 1922. He was 18 years old and had joined the IRA in 1920. Campbell was shot while attempting to flee the barracks after it was surrounded by Free State Troops, eyewitnesses reported he was running along a drain when called on to halt, he did not heed the call and was caught in the crossfire from the railway, he was hit in the neck and his right are practically blown off, he died instantly.
On Tuesday the 8th of May 1922 Volunteer James Keogh, East Galway Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was shot dead at a house in Curra, Loughrea, County Galway. Keogh was one of an Anti-Treaty IRA party under orders to evict a family or group of individuals who had taken and were holding possession of a property by force and to recover any arms held by the group. He was shot dead while attempting to do so, it was believed by the IRA that the house was occupied by Pro-Treaty IRA. He was buried in Killure Cemetery with full military honours the last post being sounded and a volley of shots fired. James Keogh had only joined the Anti-Treaty shortly before his death, he did not serve during the War of Independence.
The house in question belonged to John Madden of Cruckmore who went to it on Monday, May 8th, accompanied by Thomas Lyons, Patrick Madden and John Moran. In the early hours of Tuesday Keogh with others entered the house and during a struggle a small revolver, believed to be carried by Keogh was discharged, Keogh received a bullet wound to the shoulder from which he died. The house was built for Madden who was not from the Parish by the Congested Districts Board. John Moran was also killed during the attempted seizure of the house he was shot in the back. During the inquest held into the deaths it was learned that John Moran, John Madden and the other two men in the house when the IRA entered had no connection with the Pro-Treaty IRA.
Patrick Tubridy, Captain, C Company, Limerick Brigade, Fianna Éireann, died on 12 May 1922 at Barrington's Hospital, Limerick from the effects of a gunshot wound accidentally inflicted by a comrade named as Thomas Dargan at O'Curry Street, Barracks, Limerick earlier that or the previous day. Tubridy was serving as part of the anti-Treaty forces garrisoning the barracks at that time.
On Monday the 4th of June 1922 Divisional Engineer Eugene Kelly, 3rd Western Division, Executive Forces (Anti-Treaty IRA) was accidently shot dead by a colleague, he was with two others at Boyle Military Barracks, Boyle, County Roscommon preparing to go on patrol at about 1.30am, whilst in the guard house a gun was accidently discharged hitting Kelly in the head.
On the 15th of June 1922 Maurice McGrath, 8th Battalion, 3rd Tipperary Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA, was accidently shot dead an IRA comrade on 15 June 1922 in Carrick on Suir. McGrath was shot dead by a comrade when trying to stop a group of men they believed were on their way to join the National Army. It is stated that an IRA member named Thomas Fahy had accidentally shot him. He was 40 years old and employed as a farmer.
About an hour after the battle of the Four Courts started a tender with four men which had travelled from Kildare was travelling at speed along the North Quays, as it passed the Four Courts near the Ormond Hotel there was an exchange of fire between Nation Army soldiers and the men in the tender. Joseph Considine (Commandant sometimes described as Captain), one of the men in the tender, received a serious wound to the head, he died a short time later.
On the 29th of June 1922 William Leech, Section Leader, Drogheda Battalion, Anti-Treaty IRA was shot dead in an engagement with National Army Troops outside Millmount Barracks, Drogheda, County Louth. He was employed as a Bread Van Driver and had served throughout the War of Independence. Hi was a native of Drogheda.
John Monks F Company, 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was shot dead at the Red Cow, Clondalkin, County Dublin. He worked at the railway works at Inchicore. He is recorded by the National Graves Association as the first Anti-Treaty soldier to be killed in the Civil War.
Francis Jackson. Volunteer, 3rd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Fought at Boland's and served throughout the War of Independence. He was killed on the 29th of June 1922 while serving with Anti-Treaty forces during the Battle of the Four Courts. He was 22 years old at the time of his death, he would have been about 16 years old at the time of the Rising. Newspaper reports state he was 27 years old at the time of his death. At the time of his death he was serving with the Guards Company, Four Courts Garrison and was killed in Dame Street.
On the 29th of June 1922 Captain James Connolly, 3rd Western Division Anti-Treaty IRA was killed when a large force of Pro-Treaty Troops attacked Finner Camp, Ballyshannon in Donegal. The Camp, which had been occupied by the Anti-Treaty Forces for about two months, was taken after a fierce battle. Captain James Connolly was from Unshinagh, Kinlough,Co. Leitrim.
On the 30th of June 1922 John Joseph Cusack, aged 18, 36 Upper Dorset Street, Dublin, died in the Richmond Hospital from the effects of a bullet wound received on the 29th of June at the Four Courts. He had served with the IRA from 1921 and had served with Na Fianna Éireann prior to that during the War of Independence.
On the 1st of July 1922 Thomas Patrick Wall, aged 17, 5 Portland Place, Drumcondra, Dublin died from wounds received while serving as part of the Anti-Treaty IRA Four Courts Garrison, he died in Stevens’s Hospital. He is buried in Kilbarrack. He had served with C Company, 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Fianna Eireann since 1917 and transferred to the IRA in December 1921.
On the 7th of July 1922 Cathal Brugha died as a result of wounds received in a gun battle on O’Connell Street. On the 5th of July while Brugha as part of a small rear guard of Anti Treaty Forces he ordered his men to surrender although he refused to surrender himself. He approached Free State troop brandishing a revolver and was wounded in the leg severing a major artery, he bled to death. Elected as an anti treaty TD he died before the Dail assembled, he is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery and is also commemorated on the Republican Memorial in Glasnevin Cemetery.
On the 7th of July 1922 Francis Kearns, Volunteer, South East Galway Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was killed in an engagement with National Army forces at Roxborough, Kilchreest, Loughrea, County Galway. He was born in 1902 and was 19 years old. He had served with the IRA during the War of Independence joining in early 1921. He was employed as a Bread Van Driver.
Patrick O'Brien Volunteer, C Company, 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Born in 1899 died on the 11th of July 1922, aged about 17 years old during the Rising. Fought at Jameson Distillery, Marrowbone Lane. He went on to serve as Company Officer Commanding, C Company, 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, I.R.A. and as Garrison Officer Commanding Four Courts when he took the Anti-Treaty side in the Civil War. During the attack on the Four Courts he was injured sometime between the 28th and the 30th of June 1922 receiving shrapnel wound to the head and leg and a bullet wound to the chest. He was injured again during an engagement with National Army forces at Enniscorthy County Wexford on about the 4th of July 1922 receiving another bullet wound to the chest, he died at the Wexford County Home, Enniscorthy from wounds received on the 11th of July 1922.
On the 11th of July 1922 Thomas Sheerin, Captain, Riverstown Battalion (2 Battalion), 3 Western Division, Anti-Treaty IRA died at Sligo County Infirmary from the effects of a gunshot wound to the back of the head received by him some days previously in the vicinity of Taylor's Cross, Riverstown, County Sligo, while in the custody of a party of National Army soldiers. It is stated that Thomas Sheerin was returning from having left an injured IRA member, Thomas Deignan, in hospital in Sligo when the car he was travelling in was stopped by National Army troops. It is claimed that he was shot after having been ordered out of the car. He served with the Irish Volunteers and IRA from 1919. He was 33 years old.
On the 11th of July 1922 Anti-Treaty IRA Volunteer John Connolly was accidently shot dead at Castlegarron, Grange, County Sligo. He was on sentry duty with Francis Ward when Ward’s rifle was accidently discharged killing Connolly. Connolly was from Bundoran County Donegal.
On the 12th of July 1922 Denis Dwyer, Active Service Unit, Laois Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was killed in action in an engagement with National Army forces at Capard House, Rosenallis, County Laois. He was born in 1899 and was a Blacksmith. He joined the IRA in 1919 and had served throughout the War of Independence.
On the 15th of July 1922 Michael Moynihan, Fianna Éireann, Limerick City, died in St. John’s Hospital, Limerick from the effects of gunshot wounds received by him on the 12th of July 1922 in action against National Army forces at the Telephone Exchange Building in Limerick. Michael Moynihan served with Na Fianna Éireann from 1920 onwards and during the War of Independence and Truce Period. He was 19 years old and an employee of Powers Corn Merchants, Limerick.
On Sunday the16th of July 1922 Anti-Treaty IRA Volunteer John Joseph Campbell was killed during the taking of Ann Street Barracks Dundalk by National Army Troops. He had served with the Irish Volunteers and IRA from 1918 during the War of Independence and Civil War. At the time of his death he was working as cook in the IRA Brigade Headquarters at Anne Street, Dundalk.
During the attack on Ann Street Barracks by Free State Forces Anti-Treaty Volunteer Patrick Quigley Crossmaglen District was shot in the right arm, he succeeded in making his was to Clanbrassil Street where he was taken to hospital where his right arm was amputated he later died from wounds received although the date of his death is unclear.
On the 17th of July 1922 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Captain Séan O’Halloran was killed when fighting Free State Troops at Bunahowe between Gort and Ennis County Clare.
On the 25th of July 1921 Edward Philip Boyland Anti-Treaty IRA died from wounds received while attempting to disarm a sentry at Cavan Barracks on the 16th of July. He was 21 years old and from Cavan.
On the 26th of July 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treat army died from wounds received while fighting in Limerick City, the soldier was,
On the 28th of July 1922 3 Anti-Treaty IRA men were killed at Kingswell, County Tipperary by the effects of an accidental mine explosion. They were laying a mine in Tipperary town in preparation for the defence of that town by the IRA from attacking National Army forces.
On Friday the 28th of July 1922 Edward Hegarty was killed at Brocklagh, Newport, County Mayo. He was part of a group who had tried to ambush the National Troops. He was Battalion Officer Commanding, 4th Battalion, North mayo Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA. His brother Martin Hegarty also served with the Lahardane Company, 4th Battalion, North Mayo Brigade.
On Saturday the 29th of July 1922 two Anti-Treaty soldiers were killed in a shoot-out with Regular forces. At about 3am the Anti-Treaty forces advanced towards the village of Golden County Tipperary from the Cashel side in an armoured car. The armoured car came under machine gun fire from a party of regular troops led by Sergeant-Major Lennon of the National Army, two Anti-Treaty soldiers died and twenty others were taken prisoner. The two dead men were:
On the 1st August 1922 Harry Boland TD was shot dead at the Grand Hotel, Skerries County Dublin. Boland had taken the Anti-Treaty side in the Civil War and was a prominent Anti-Treaty activist. He was shot by two Free State Army Officers and died two days later in St. Vincent’s Hospital. It was alleged that and is still believed now that Boland was shot by an assassination squad set up by Michael Collins and operating out of Oriel House Dublin.
On Wednesday the 2nd of August 1922 as National Army troops attacked Fenit from the sea attempting to land from the Lady Wicklow. The landing was successful and during the attack two soldiers of the Anti Treaty army were killed, the soldiers were,
On the 4th of August 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty army died of wounds he received while fighting in Bruree County Limerick on the 26th of July. He was,
On the 5th of August 1922 Anti-Treaty IRA Volunteer John James Doyle died at the County Hospital, Waterford from the effects of gunshot wounds received by him in fighting against National Army forces in Waterford city. Doyle was serving as part of an IRA unit based in Waterford City General Post Office when he was wounded. He had joined the IRA in 1919 and served through the War of Independence. He was 22 years old and from Waterford.
On the 5th of August 1922 a young Anti Treaty Fianna member was shot dead by National Army troops as he monitored their movements from the Earl Desmond Hotel in Tralee, he was spotted by a soldier of the National Army and shot dead, he was more than likely unarmed. He was,
On the 6th of August 1922 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. men Volunteer John O’Gorman and Lieutenant John McSweeney were both fatally injured while attacking Free State Troops garrisoned in Kildysart Barracks County Clare. O’Gorman died on the 11th of August and McSweeney died in early September.
On Friday the 11th of August a Corporation Ambulance brought the bodies of two Anti-Treaty men to Cork one of them being the body of Ian McKenzie Kennedy who died on the 9th of August, McKenzie Kennedy was from the Cork area and a well-known member of the Volunteers Pipe band. The other man named James Moloney and from Blackpool County Cork. Both men were killed in fighting with the National Army.
On the 10th of August 1922 two men were hanged in Wandsworth Prison London for the murder of Chief of the Imperial General Staff of the Army Sir Henry Wilson who was believed to be the main instigator of the pogroms against Nationalists in Northern Ireland, he was Military Advisor to the Northern Irish Parliament under James Craig. The two men were.
They succeeded in killing Sir Henry Wilson but in their attempts to escape their getaway car failed to show and both men were chased by a crowd of civilians and police, on reaching Ebury Street about half a mile from when the assassination had taken place they were cornered by the crowd who almost beat them to death, they also shot a policeman dead while attempting to flee capture.
Both men a commemorated on the memorial in the Republican Plot at Dean’s Grange Cemetery Dublin, their bodies, which were buried in Wandsworth Prison were returned to Ireland and buried in the Republican Plot in 1967.
On the 12th of August 1922 Joseph ‘Sonny’ Hudson of the Anti Treaty Army was shot dead at his home in Glasthuel Dun Laoghaire County Dublin. He was an active Anti Treaty Soldier on leave, with two other he was attempting to repair a broken revolver when interrupted by a Free State Army patrol accompanied by two C.I.D. Detectives. After fleeing the house Hudson returned to retrieve the revolver when he was shot by the two detectives. He was mortally wounded and taken to St. Michael’s Hospital Dun Laoghaire. Before he died he made a statement he was shot after he surrendered. The inquest into his death returned a verdict of gunshot wounds inflicted in the course of military operations by the Free State Army.
On the 13th of August 1922 Volunteer Timothy Francis Hayes, Mid Limerick brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died at St. John's Hospital, Limerick from the effects of a gunshot wound accidentally received by him on the 4th of July 1922 at the Telephone Exchange, Limerick during the Anti-Treaty IRA occupation of that building. Hayes was serving in the first aid section of the IRA garrison when he was accidentally shot by IRA officer Patrick Kelleher. Kelleher is stated to have been cleaning his revolver at the time. He was 20 years old and employed as a Chemists Assistant, M. Mahon's William Street, Limerick. Hayes had served with the IRA and Irish Volunteers from 1918 onwards during the War of Independence and the Truce Period.
On the 13th of August 1922 Volunteer John (Sean) Hogan, Mid Limerick Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died in St. John’s Hospital, Limerick from Peritonitis arising from a gunshot wound received by him from a National Army soldier on the 6th of August 1922 at Newcastle West, County Limerick. John Hogan was a prisoner in National Army custody when he was shot. John Hogan served with the IRA from 1919 onwards and during the War of Independence and Truce Period. He was 19 years old and employed as a Labourer, he was from Limerick.
On Sunday the 13th of August 1922 Michael Condon 5th battalion, 3rd Tipperary Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was shot dead at the Town Hall in Clonmel. He died from a bullet wound below the right ear which penetrated the skull. Condon was being held prisoner by the National Army, he was repeatedly ordered to move away from a window when he refused to do so he was shot by a sentry. He was aged about 25 and employed as a Farm Labourer and had joined the IRA in about September 1921.
On Monday the 14th of August 1922 an Anti Treaty soldier was killed when a mine he was planting at Nenagh Barracks exploded prematurely. The dead man was named as:
On the 14th of August 1922 Anti-Treaty Brigadier Patrick McKenna was killed in a bomb explosion during an attack on Dundalk Barracks. At about 3am a large Anti-Treaty force entered Dundalk and after capturing a Lancia car from National Army Troops they used the car to attack the barracks. The bomb that killed McKenna was thrown by one of his own men.
On the 19th of August 1922 Sean Edwards Captain, 4th battalion, Waterford Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was shot dead by a sentry in his prison cell at Kilkenny Jail. He was employed as a Fireman Great Southern Railway in Waterford. He had served with the IRA during the War of Independence.
On Saturday the 26th of August 1922 in Yellow Lane near The Thatch Public House in Swords County Dublin two members of Na Fianna Éireann were shot dead by a group of six men. At the inquest allegations were made that the two were assassinated by the National Army who had a policy carrying out such acts against known Anti Treaty activists. It was also alleged at the inquest that the Anti Treaty movement had a policy of assassinating supporters who wished to leave their movement. It was alleged during the inquest that Cole had suggested he wished to leave Fianna Éireann. The two were named as:
About half an hour later on the same day another know Anti Treaty activist was shot, the dead man was:
Daly had been a member of the Volunteers since 1916 and a member of the IRA up to his death.
On the 30th of August 1922 Patrick Joseph Hickey, Volunteer, 5th Battalion (Engineers Battalion), Dublin Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died from the effects of a gunshot wound received by him in the prison the previous day at Maryborough (Portlaoise) Prison, County Laois. He received the wound during a riot at the prison during which part of the prison was burned. He was born in 1900 and was employed as a Brass Finisher, Great Southern Railways, Inchicore Works, Dublin. he had served with the Irish Volunteers/IRA since about 1918.
On the 30th of August forces of the National Army engage Anti-treaty forces in Bantry County Cork. Four soldiers of the Anti-treaty Army are killed in various engagements around Bantry.
On Friday the 1st of September a soldier of the Anti Treaty Army was killed when he tried to disarm the commanding officer of a National Army raiding party at the Locomotive Department of the Great Southern and Western Railway in Limerick. The dead man was named as:
On the 2nd of September 1922 John Stephens, a member of the Anti Treaty forces, was removed by three armed men form a house he was lodging in at Gardiner Place Dublin. Several hours later John Stephens was found mortally wounded near Blackhorse Bridge. He was taken to Dr. Steeven’s Hospital where he died from his wounds later that day.
John Joseph Stephens was from Belleek, Fermanagh and had served as Vice Commandant of the 4th Battalion, Fermanagh Brigade, Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A during the War of Independence. He was serving with the 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA when he was killed, although his rank is recorded on his headstone as Volunteer it is recorded as Commandant in the Deansgrange Cemetery register. He returned from Glasgow in 1919 and joined the Volunteers, after an attack on Belleek Barracks he was forced to go on the run and went to Glasgow where he remained until May 1922 when he returned to Dublin.
On Saturday the 2nd of September 1922 two Anti Treaty soldiers were shot dead in a raid at Newpark Lodge Stillorgan Road County Dublin. The two dead men were named as:
On Monday the 4th of September 1922 a party of National Army troops under Commandant-General Hannigan surprised a large group of Anti Treaty troops preparing an ambush Clenaconane County Limerick. An office of the Anti Treaty troops was killed in the ensuing battle.
Anti-Treaty Captain Timothy Kennefick is abducted from his home in Cork city by Free State troops, his body was found dumped near Macroom County Cork. His name is also recorded as Kenefick.
On the 12th of September 1922 Active Service Unit Section Commander Patrick Murphy 1st Cork Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died at the Mercy Hospital Cork on 12 September 1922 from the effects of wounds received by him during an engagement with National Army troops at Leemount, County Cork on the 9th September 1922. Patrick Murphy was one of an IRA party which, during an operation to raid a train to capture mails and copies of the Cork Examiner newspaper came under attack by National Army troops. Following this incident Murphy was brought to Cork by train and transferred by a unit of the Cork fire brigade from Cork railway station to the Mercy Hospital where he subsequently died of his wounds. Patrick Murphy served with the IRA from 1919 onwards and during the War of Independence, Truce Period and Civil War. Patrick Murphy also served with the British Army during the First World War in the Irish Guard, service number 9736, from the 9th September 1915 until discharged, no longer physically fit for War Service, on the 18th of July 1918.
On Tuesday the 12th of September 1922 a 21 year old medical student was admitted to the Adelaide Hospital having suffer gunshot wound in an incident on bridge Street Dublin City. The young man died in a scuffle with National Army troops after he tried to escape from detention. The man was named as:
Sean McEvoy is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, the dedication to him on the family headstone reads
and my fond and only son
SEÁN McEVOY, A.S.U., Capt. 4th Batt, D.B.I.R.A.
who died for Ireland
(at Bishop St) 12th Sep. 1922, aged 21 years.
Commandant Patrick Michael Mannion from County Mayo, know to his friends as Mayo. He took the Anti Treaty side in the Civil War. While taking part in a planned attack on the Headquarters of the Free State Army Intelligence Section at Oriel House Westland Row on the 17th of September 1922. The attack was thwarted by the Free State Army and while walking near Mount Street bridge Mannion with two other Anti Treaty soldiers was challenged by troops of the Free State Army. Mannion was wounded in the leg and captured by the Free State Troops, he was dragged to the corner of Clanwilliam Place by a Free State Officer and shot in the back of the head. The inquest into the death of Patrick Mannion returned a verdict of Wilful Murder. Patrick Mannion was buried in the Family plot in Dean’s grange Cemetery, his inscription is on the side panel of the large Celtic Cross and reads:
PATRICK M. MANNION2 ST. CATHERIN’S AVE. S.C.R. DUBLINLATECOMB’T T.O. 2ND WESTERN DIV’NAND ‘MAYO’ OF LOUTH BRIGADE I.R.A.WHOS LIFE WAS ENDEDAT MOUNT ST. BRIDGE SEPT. 17TH 1922.AGED 22 YEARS.
Patrick Mannion’s father was an ex-Dublin metropolitan Police inspector.
On the 18th of September 1922 Cornelius Hanley, 3rd Tipperary Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was killed in action against National Army forces at Grantstown, Donaskeigh, County Tipperary. He was from Soloheadbeg, Donohill and was employed as a Road Contractor and Farm Contractor, he was a member of the IRA from 1918 and served through the War of Independence.
After heavy fighting in the North Sligo area 6 Anti-Treaty Volunteers were found dead on Belbulben Mountain. For several days the Free State Army engaged the Anti-Treaty forces, it was during these engagement the Anti-Treaty forces used and were forced to abandon the Ballinalee Armoured Car. Accounts of how the Anti-Treaty Volunteers died differ, the Free State Army account state that the six were killed in gun battles while the Anti-Treaty side claim that at least three if not all were taken prisoner and executed.
Division Adjutant Brian MacNeill, from Dublin, second son of Eoin MacNeill Minister for Education.
Brigadier Seamus Devins T.D. He took an active part in the War of Independence, his house was burned to the ground by the Black and Tan and he also served time in Dartmoor Prison for his I.R.A. activities.
Captain Harry Benson. The body of Thomas Langan along with the body of Harry Benson were found near Ballinatrillick on the morning of the 2nd of October 1922.
Lieutenant Patrick (Paddy) Carroll. He was employed as a motor mechanic, his brother was a sergeant in the National Army.
Volunteer Joseph Banks. Patrick Joseph Banks died on 20 September 1922 near Mount Benbulben at Lislahelly, County Sligo from the effects of bullet wounds received from National Army forces. He was 18 years old at the time and had served with Fianna Eireann.
Volunteer Thomas Langan. The body of Thomas Langan along with the body of Harry Benson were found near Ballinatrillick on the morning of the 2nd of October 1922.
On the 21st of September 1922 Volunteer John O'Brien, D Company, 2nd Battalion, 1st Cork Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died from wounds received in an engagement with National Army forces at Donoughmore, County Cork. He was born in 1900, from Cork and employed as an Engineer at Rushbrook Docks, County Cork.
On the 22nd of September 1922 the body of Anti-Treaty Volunteer Michael Neville, a native of Lisdoonvarna County Clare, was found in a disused graveyard in Killester County Dublin. He was a member of the Dublin City Brigade and had been killed while in the custody of the Criminal Investigation Department (C.I.D.) of the Civic Guard in Oriel House. The C.I.D. were better known as the Oriel House Gang. Three men entered Mooney’s Public House Eden Quay Dublin and abducted the barman Michael Neville aged 23. Neville’s body was found the next day in a disused graveyard in Killester . Witnesses told the inquest that three men had entered the public house and ‘arrested’ Neville, witnesses for the Civic Guard told the inquest that no one connected with the Civic Guard had anything to do with the shooting and Neville was not arrested by them. Doctor G. Meldon told the inquest he found a number of bullet wounds on the victim including lacerations to the lungs, liver and brain and the victim also had a fractured skull, death was due to shock and haemorrhage.
On 21st of September 1922 an Anti Treaty soldier in the custody of the National Army was fatally wounded when the convoy holding him prisoner was ambushed at Brennan’s Glen, near Farranfore County Kerry. He was taken to the Military Hospital, Killarney, County Kerry where he died from his wounds. The dead soldier was,
It was alleged by Anti Treaty forces that Bertie Murphy was in custody in the Dublin Guard’s Headquarters at the Great Southern Hotel having been arrested earlier on the 27 of September and that he was tortured and shot because he refused to give any information on those responsible for the Farrenfore ambush.
On the 27th of September 1922 Con Looney, Section Commander, 2nd Kerry Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was killed in action when Free State Troops took Killorglin, County Kerry. He was 22 years old and came from Rosbee, Kenmare, County Kerry. He had been a member of the IRA sine about 1918 and took part in the War of Independence.
On the 27th of September 1922 Patrick William Murphy, Lieutenant, 6th Battalion, 2nd Kerry Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was killed in action against National Army forces at Killorglin, County Kerry. He joined the IRA in 1918 and fought throughout the War of Independence during which he took part in a number of IRA attacks against British forces in Killorglin in 1920 and 1921. He was from Dooks, Glenbeigh, County Kerry and was employed as a Shop Assistant.
On Thursday the 28th of September 1922 an Anti Treaty soldier was shot dead when attempting to ambush National Army forces two miles outside Cork City, the dead man’s name was:
On the 30th of September 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty army was shoot by troops of the National Army in Ballyseedy Wood County Kerry. The Anti Treaty soldier was allegedly responsible for the death of National Army Captain Burke who had died in an ambush a month earlier. The soldier was,
There were two versions of the death of Galvin, the National Army alleges he was killed when the convoy transporting him came under attack from Anti Treaty forces, the Anti Treaty side alleged he was executed for killing Captain Burke.
On the 3rd of October 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty army died as a result of wounds he received in what was know as the Battle of Killorglin, he was,
On the 4th of October 1922 Anti-Treaty Volunteer Daniel O'Donovan was killed when several tons of masonry fell on him when he removed the keystone while destroying Timaleague Bridge County Cork. He was from Clogagh, Timoleague, County Cork and had joined the IRA in 1917.
On the 12th of October 1922 three Anti Treaty Troops were shot dead near the village of Upton County Cork. The men died when they attempted to cut off a small National Army out-post but were surprised by a larger force of National Army Troops, the three dead men were named as:
Daniel O’Sullivan also of Barrack Street Kinsale. He had served with the Irish Volunteers and IRA from about 1918 and had fought throughout the War of Independence.
Michael Hayes of Shannon Street Bandon, Born on the 1st of August 1904 he was 18 years old at the time of his death he joined Bandon Fianna Éireann in 1919 and was serving with the 1st Battalion, 3rd Cork Brigade at the time of his death. He was employed as a Carriage Painter.
On the 6th of October 1922 Anti-Treaty Lieutenant Michael J. Keane from Gortglass County Clare was killed in action during an ambush on a Free State Army convoy near Tullycrine.
On the 6th of October 1922 three young men were arrested in Drumcondra County Dublin for putting up Anti Treaty Republican posters, they were taken to Wellington Barracks where they were interrogated and released. Details as to what happened after their release are sketchy but the three were found dead the next day at the Red Cow Clondalkin, the three were:
On Sunday the 8th of October 1922 a man was shot dead by the Royal Ulster Constabulary when he was involved in trying to ambush five members of that force. The incident happened along the road at Cargaclogher County Armagh. The policemen returned fire killing the man who was named as:
At 1:30am of Monday the 9th of October 1922 a man was shot dead by National Army Troops when he fled from a pony and trap when stopped, the man, a passenger in the pony and trap, refused to stop when challenged and was shot through the lung. A subsequent search of the trap and driver uncovered a revolver and a quantity of bullets. The dead man was named as:
On Tuesday the 10th of October 1922 a prisoner and three soldier of the National Army were killed when Anti Treaty prisoners attempted a break-out from Mountjoy Jail Dublin. The prisoner was Padar Breslin of Mount Temple Road Dublin. The inquest into his death found he died from shock and haemorrhage caused by bullets fired by persons unknown.
On the 11th of October 1922 Volunteer Richard Noonan, G Company, 2nd Battalion, 1st Cork Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died in Cork Male Prison from cardiac failure which was deemed to have been due to his service with the IRA. Richard Noonan had served with Na Fianna Éireann and the IRA from 1919 onwards during the War of Independence, Truce Period and Civil War. He served as a Company Officer Commanding with Fianna Éireann prior to his transfer to the IRA in early 1922. He served with the IRA in Limerick following the outbreak of the Civil War but had returned to Cork for funeral of his brother Thomas Noonan when he was arrested by National Forces in August 1922. He had spent an unspecified period of time on hunger strike during his imprisonment. It is unclear if he was still on hunger strike at the time of his death. He was 18n years old and employed as a Pawnbroker's Assistant at 4 Shandon Street, Cork, before he was imprisoned.
On the night of Friday the 13th early morning of Saturday the 14th Seamus (James) Mulrennan was shot dead during an engagement with National Army Troops at Doonacartha, County Mayo. During a search Mulrennan and another man fired from a concealed position on the National Army Troops, after a short gun battle the other man surrendered but Mulrennan refused to do so and was shot.
Seamus (James) Mulrennan was Commandant of the 4th Battalion, 3rd Western Division, Anti-Treaty IRA. He was a native of Kiltomaine, Liscaul, Ballaghadereen County Roscommon and was employed as a plasterer.
On Sunday the 22nd of October 1922 Anti-Treaty Volunteer Daniel O’Halloran aged 34 was killed in an ambush on Free State troops at Carrigaloe County Cork. A Lieutenant of the National Army gave evidence at the inquest that he had left Queenstown at 9.30 to visit troops at Belvally and on his return journey a bomb was thrown at the car he was travelling in, one of the men in the car was wounded. On reaching Queenstown the Lieutenant got some reinforcements and returned to the scene of the ambush. When they returned fire was opened on them which they returned. During this exchange of fire O’Halloran was killed. O’Halloran’s brother stated at the inquest ‘he was probably killed in armed opposition to the National Forces’ and added ‘he was killed in a fair fight.’
On the 25th of October 1922 an officer and two soldiers of the Anti-Treaty forces were walking towards Fossa, as they passed a dug-out which was under surveillance by the National Army they were fired on, the Anti-Treaty Officer was killed in the attack, he was,
On the 25th of October 1922 a National Army cycle patrol happened upon a group of Anti-Treaty Forces three mile from Killorglin County Kerry, the Anti-Treaty Forces were unloading supplies from a boot on the river Laune. In the ensuing battle one Anti-Treaty soldier was killed, he was,
On Thursday evening on the 26th of October 1922 a convoy of 16 National Army Troops in two cars were bringing supplies to the military outpost at Ballyrobin Railway Bridge, as they entered Donohill they were fired on from a house in the village. The National Army Troops returned fire and after about ten minutes saw some men running from the house across the fields firing as they ran. The National Army Troops pursued the men, during the pursuit one of the Irregulars was killed and another seriously wounded. The dead man was:
William (Billy) Myles
On Friday the 27th of October 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty Forces was killed in an exchange of fire with National Army Forces at Tonevane, Curraheen near Castlegregory County Kerry. He was William Myles Junior from Tralee County Kerry, he had served with Na Fianna since 1917 and at the time of his death he was with the 9th Battalion, 1st Kerry Brigade. He was employed as a carpenter. He was on duty at an outpost which National Army Troops attempted to capture, Myles attempted to capture one of the National Army Troops and was shot while doing so, and he died instantly.
On the 27th of October 1922 James Foley, Volunteer, Mid-Limerick Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was shot dead at Dock Road. He was attempting to escape from National Army custody when he was shot. He served from 1916 with the Irish Volunteers and IRA and during the War of Independence, Truce Period and Civil War. He as born in 1885 and at the time of his death was employed as a Van Driver with Imperial Bakery of Sarsfield Street, Limerick. Newspaper accounts of the events of Foley’s death report that James Foley was shot dead after three men called to his home in New Street, Limerick. At about 9.45pm the three men, dressed in trench coats, called to his home and demanded he accompany the men, he told his wife he would only be away a few minutes but she never saw him alive again.
On Tuesday the 31st of October a soldier of the Anti Treaty Army was executed by the National Army for his part in a battle which took place the Glen Farm at Ballyheigue. Troops of the National Army had surrounded a party of Anti Treaty troops, the Anti Treaty troops but up such fierce resistance that the National Army brought in an eighteen-pounder field-gun. The executed soldier was named as,
Lawlor was severely wounded in the battle but his actions in staying behind to provide covering fire for the retreating Anti Treaty forces enabled the rest of the Anti Treaty troops to escape.
On the 2nd of November 1922 a wounded soldier of the Anti Treaty forces was taking refuge in a farm house at Knockanes when found by National Army troops, the wounded man was dragged from the house and shot dead, he was,
Francis Michael Power was killed in an attack on the home of Richard Mulcahy on the 2nd of November 1922. The Free State government had introduced a law under the Emergency Powers Act to execute anyone found in possession of arms or ammunition, the attack on Mulcahy by Anti Treaty forces was in reprisal for this policy. Francis Michael Power was 22 years old and from Nenagh County Tipperary and in Dublin studying as a medical student at Saint Vincent’s Hospital. The Free State Army refused to release the remains of Francis Power for burial, on the 4th of November members of the Anti Treaty forces broke into the morgue and removed the body, he was buried on the 5th of November in the family plot in Dean’s Grange Cemetery Dublin.
On the 13th of November 1922 Patrick Mulrennan died at the Military Hospital, The Curragh, County Kildare from the effects of a gunshot wound received by him from a member of the National Army while a prisoner in Athlone Military Barracks. He was the brother of Seamus (James) Mulrennan shot dead during a gun battle with national Army Troops on the 14th of October 1922.
Patrick Mulrennan served with the 3rd Western Division, East mayo brigade Active Service Unit, he was employed as a Plasterer and a native of Kiltomaine, Lisacul, Ballaghadereen, County Roscommon.
On Saturday the 4th of November 1922 two members of the Anti-Treaty IRA were killed in action against National Army forces at Ballineen, County Cork. At 5am heavy firing was heard outside the village of Ballineen and the hotel in the village where the National Army was garrisoned was attacked, the lower floor of the hotel was captured by the Irregulars and there was intense fighting throughout the village. About the same time the village of Enniskean was also attacked by Anti-Treaty IRA.
On the 5th November 1922 James (Jim) Spain took part in the large-scale attack on the Free State Army at Wellington Barracks, South Circular Road, Dublin. He was wounded and made his way to a house on Donore Avenue. He was dragged out of the house by Free State soldiers and shot dead, he was unarmed.
On Friday the 17th of November 1922 the following were executed in Dublin, all were found guilty by a Military Court Martial of being in procession of a revolver without authority and sentenced to death, all were executed at 7am.
On Saturday the 18th of November four Anti-Treaty I.R.A. were killed on the Naas Road just outside Inchicore in Dublin. Eyewitnesses stated that a group of up to ten men were seen carrying a heavy article from a field near Blackhorse Bridge, witnesses described a bang louder than any thunder and a terrific flash that lit the night sky like daylight. The incident happened just after 8pm. It later transpired the men were carrying a Mine which had exploded as it was being moved. Four I.R.A. men died in the explosion, they were:
It was believe that the Mine was intended for use in an ambush of two lorry loads of National Army Troops returning to Baldonnel Aerodrome. Body parts were discovered 500 yards from the scene of the explosion and Post Office linesmen had the gruesome task of removing intestines from the telegraph wires. It was believed the ambush was intended as a reprisal for the execution of four I.R.A. men in Kilmainham Jail on the Friday the 17th of November 1922.
On the 20th of November 1922 Arthur Keogh, 2nd Offaly Brigade, 3rd Southern Division, Anti-Treaty IRA died from Lobar Pneumonia and Heart Failure, his illness was deemed to have been attributable to his active service. He served with the IRA from August 1919 onwards and during the War of Independence, Truce Period and Civil War. In October 1922 Arthur Keogh did continuous duty as a guard to, and providing provisions for, officers of 3 Southern Division IRA who were in his local area. He was 22 years old and employed as a farmer. He was from Lacka, Shinrone, County Offaly.
On the 20th of November 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty Army was shot dead when National Army Troops uncovered two dug-outs containing arms and provisions belonging to the Anti Treaty Troops during a search of the Dingle Cloghane area. The dead soldier was,
On Friday the 24th of November 1922 Erskine Childers was executed at 7am in Dublin, he was tried and found guilty by a military court of being in possession of an automatic pistol without proper authority.
On the 25th of November 1922. William Graham was stopped by a Free State Army officer at Leeson Street Bridge. He was found to be carrying a revolver, which was taken from him. Reports differ on what happened next, some reports say Graham tried to escape while other reports say he was executed by the Officer who stopped him.
On Thursday the 30th of November 1922 the following Anti treaty soldiers were executed, after being found guilty by Court Martial. The executions took place in Dublin at 8.15am.
Al three were arrested on the 30th of October after an attack on National Troops at Oriel House Dublin.
On Thursday the 9th of December Hugh O’Donnell was shot dead by National Army Troops during a round-up in the neighbourhoods of Glenbrohan and Kilfinane County Tipperary. Described as a youth who had not been in the Irregulars long.
On the 8th of December 1922 four Anti-Treaty Volunteers were executed by firing squad in Mountjoy Jail:
The four were executed as a reprisal for the assignation of Brigadier-General Sean Hales TD who was shot dead on Ormond Quay Dublin on Thursday the 14th of December. The executions took place at Mountjoy at 9.20am at a spot at the rear of the prison. Three clergymen were in attendance and the prisoners were marched together to the execution spot. They were blindfolded and after the execution their bodies were buried within the grounds of Mountjoy. Rory O’Connor was a native of Monkstown County Dublin, he was about 40 years old and was a civil engineer and had worked for the Dublin Corporation. From a very young age he had been involved in politics, he was a member of the Constitutional Movement and was for a time chairman of the United Ireland League. On March 22nd 1922 he invited a number of Pressmen to the headquarters of the Anti-Treaty party in Suffolk Street Dublin and repudiated the Dail which he declared had “done an act which it has no moral right to do.” He was Commander-in-chief of the Four Courts Garrison and directed operations during the siege of the building. When the garrison surrendered he was taken prisoner.
Joseph McKelvey, Stewardstown County Tyrone, was commandant of the 1st Northern Division during the War of Independence. He took the Anti-Treaty side and was associated with the Belfast Boycott which was being enforced by the occupants of the Four Courts. He was arrested after the surrender of the Four Courts Garrison but escaped from Jameson’s Distillery with Ernie O’Malley, McKelvey was later recaptured. McKelvey was a boilermaker by trade and acted for a time as Liaison Officer at St. Mary’s Hall, Belfast. He was about 26 years old.
Liam Mellows, who was about 35 years old, he had been involved in the Volunteers for many years and in the early years of World War 1 was sentenced to a term in prison for Sedition. He was deported from Ireland but returned in time to take part in the 1916 Rising where he led the Rebels in Galway. After the Rising he escaped to America allegedly dressed as a Priest. He played a prominent part in the War of Independence. He was one of those in command in the siege of the Four Courts and was captured with the rest of the garrison. His brother Barney Mellows was one of the chiefs of Na Fianna Éireann.
Richard (Dick) Barrett, Ballineen County Cork, was captured with the Four Courts Garrison. He was a prominent and active member of the Anti-Treaty executive. He fought during the War of Independence.
On the 8th of December 1922 William Harrington was shot dead in Tralee County Kerry. Harrington joined the Irish Volunteers in 1918 and he was Intelligence Officer attached to D Company, 1st Battalion, Kerry Brigade at the time of his death. Harrington was in the Rink, Tralee collecting funds for IRA prisoners when the building was raided by National Forces Harringotn was shot by Lieutenant Parsons. Report of enquiry claims that funds were been raised for the poor of the district. No disciplinary action was taken against Parsons following the incident.
On the 8th of December 1922 John Dwyer, 5th battalion, 5th Cork Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA, was killed in action against National Army forces on the 8th of December 1922 at Droumacappal, Kealkie, County Cork. He joined the Irish Volunteers/IRA in 1918 and served throughout the War of Independence. He was employed on the family farm.
On Saturday the 9th of December the Irish Independent reported that a statement was issued by Army Headquarters said that an Irregular named J Carroll, Rahanna, Borris, was killed in an engagement with National Army Troops at Shangarry County Carlow. Another Irregular, J Toole was wounded and two other E Kane of Woodlands, Castledermot and H Rourke of Tinahely County Wicklow were captured.
On the 11th of December 1922 Anti-Treaty IRA Volunteer John Riordan, C Company, 4th Battalion, 3rd Tipperary Brigade, was killed in action against National Army forces at Coolbrook, Ballingarry, County Tipperary. He joined the IRA/Irish Volunteers in 1918, his two brothers Timothy and Patrick Riordan also served in the IRA. He was employed as a Farm labourer.
On Tuesday the 19th of December 1922 seven men were executed in the Curragh Military Prison at 8.30am. A column of ten men had operated against railways, goods trains and shops in the vicinity of Kildare for some time. Five of them had apparently taken part in an attempt to disrupt communications by derailing engines on 11 December. Two engines had been taken from a shed at Kildare and one of them had been sent down the line into an obstruction at Cherryville, blocking the line. A goods train had been looted and shops robbed in the locality. The same column was also reported to have taken part in an ambush of Free State troops at the Curragh siding on 25 November. On Wednesday the 13th of December eight men were surprised in a dug-out at a farmhouse at Moore’s Bridge, about one and a half miles from the Curragh Camp, by Free State troops. In the dug-out were eight men, ten rifles, a quantity of ammunition and various items relating to bomb making. The men were arrested and taken to the Curragh. The woman owner of the farmhouse was also arrested and later detained in Mountjoy Prison. During the arrest on of the eight men one of them, Thomas Behan, had his arm broken by a blow from a Free State soldier’s rifle butt when he was being apprehended, when Behan was unable to mount the back of the truck which was to convey the eight men to the Curragh Camp he was struck again by a rifle butt on the head which caused his death.. The official version was that he was shot when attempting to escape from a hut in which he was detained in the Curragh Camp. The seven men executed were:
A memorial to the executed men was erected in Kildare Town.
On the 22nd of January 1922 Private James Ryan (service number 3795 or 22932) died in a car accident at Michelstown, County Cork.
On the 28th of December 1922 Michael Morris South Wexford Brigade Active Service Unit was killed by the accidental discharge of his own rifle near Kyle, County Wexford. Morris was travelling cross country and climbing a gate when his rifle accidentally went off. He joined the IRA during 1920.
Of Friday the 29th of December 1922 two men were executed in Kilkenny. Both men were arrested on the 13th of December at Bishopslough County Kilkenny, both were charged and found guilty of having a quantity of arms and ammunition and being involved in a raid on Shersoetown House. The two men were:
On the 29th of December 1922 Frank Lawlor, a known Anti Treaty I.R.A. was arrested by CID Detectives at a friend’s house in Ranelagh County Dublin. Nothing was heard of Lawlor until the 1st of January 1923 when his body was found on Orwell Road.
On the 6th of January 1923 an Anti-Treaty I.R.A. soldier, Michael Cull, was shot dead during a raid on Ovens’ hardware and grocery store in the village of Ballyconnell County Cavan, he was part of a large group of Anti-Treaty hiding out in the Arigna Mountains and raiding the local area for food and supplies. It was reported locally he was shot by two plain clothes Free State officers. The Anti-Treaty group from the Arigna Mountains raided Ballyconnell Village about a month later murdering two civilians.
On Saturday the 6th of January 1923 Thomas Flannery died from wounds received at Ballaghadereen, County Roscommon shortly after midnight on the 3rd of January. Flannery was stopped and searched by Troops of the National Army during a raid in the town, a bullet and a dispatch were found on Flannery who was arrested. Shortly after his arrest Flannery made a run for it and during the chase as he tried to escape he was shot and wounded. He was first taken to Boyle then to Dublin where he was treated at Portobello Barracks.
Thomas Flannery was 28 years old and a native of Ballaghadereen, he was serving with the 4th Battalion, 3rd Western Division, Anti-Treaty IRA at the time of his death. His rank is given as Vice Commandant but according to contemporary reports his rank is given as Volunteer.
On Monday the 8th of January 1923 men were executed in Dublin, they had been charged, tried and convicted for:
The Court found each of the accused guilty of both charges, all were sentenced to death and the sentence was duly carried out at 8am on the 8th of January 1923.
Lawrence Sheeky Braytown, County Meath. He served with C Company, 2nd Meath Brigade IRA from early 1921 during the War of Independence and Truce Period until March 1922 when he joined the National Army. About October 1922 he re-joined the Anti Treaty IRA although it is unclear from the files exactly when he left the National Army. His brother John was serving in the National Army and left about three weeks after his brother was executed.
Terence Brady Wilkinstown, Navan, County Meath. At the time he was captured he was serving with the 1st Eastern Division Active Service Unit. He joined the National Army in March 1922 and served up to about October 1922, it is unclear from files if he was actually serving in October 1922 or that was the time at which he was reported no longer serving with the National Army. He had served with the 4th Meath Brigade IRA during the War of Independence.
On December the 1st a lorry carrying provisions to the National Army post at Maynooth was held up and burned and the occupants taken prisoner. When news of the attack reached Maynooth Lieutenant Ledwith and a small party of National troops hurried to the scene, contact was also made with other military stations in the area from which other National troops were dispatched. As Ledwith and his men marched across country to the scene they were ambushed, as they neared Grangewilliam House heavy rifle and machine-gun fire was opened on them. One of the National troops Private Moran was killed in this exchange. The National troops kept the ambushers on the defensive until other detachments of National troops arrived. The ambushers retreated and after a running gun-fight which lasted several hours the National troops surrounded the ambushers. 22 men were captured, among them the five executed men. The ambushers were fully equipped with rifles and Thompson and Lewis machine-guns.
On the 10th of January 1923 two Volunteers of the Anti-Treaty side were killed in Wexford. Part of a Flying-Column they were resting at Rossiter’s Farm when they were surrounded by a large force of Free State troops. Both men were members of the Murrintown Active Service Unit. The two Volunteers held off the Free State troops while the rest of the Flying-Column escaped, one Volunteer died at the scene while the other died from wounds later that day. The two men were:
Con McCarthy, unmarried, aged 24 and from the Murrintown area of County Wexford.
Bernie Radford, unmarried, aged 23 and from the Murrintown area of County Wexford.
McCarthy died at the scene while Radford died that night in The County Hospital Wexford. Military Honours were rendered at their funerial in Murrintown cemetery.
On the 13th of January 1923 three Anti-treaty I.R.A. men were executed in Dundalk gaol, all three were executed by firing squad. The three were:
Thomas Murray Active Service Unit, South Louth Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA. He had served with the IRA from sometime in late 1921 onwards. He had also previously served in the British Army with the Dublin Fusiliers and Connaught Rangers, he claimed to have taken part in the Connaught Rangers Mutiny in 1920 but there is no record of him being Court Martialled. He joined the National Army but deserted in August 1922. He was found guilty of being in possession of a revolver and six rounds of ammunition and was also convicted of taking part in a robbery of Sheastown House when property to the value of £189 was stolen. The robbery was an ‘officially-sanctioned’ IRA raid as the occupants refused to pay a levy to the IRA. He was born in White Cross County Armagh.
The death sentences were carried out on five men on Monday the 15th of January 1923, all five had been found guilty and sentenced to death.
On Saturday the 20th of January 1923 four members of the Anti Treaty Army were executed at Ballymullen Barracks Tralee County Kerry. The four men were,
Although the four men were tried and convicted of being in possession of arms and ammunition under the Emergency Powers Act it was widely believed the men were killed in reprisal for attacks on the railway system in Kerry.
On the 20th of January 1923 two Anti-Treaty I.R.A. men were executed at Limerick Jail, the two men were Commandant Con McMahon and Volunteer Patrick Hennessy. Both men were charged with the destruction of Ardsollus railway station on the 14th of January. Both men were found guilty of destruction of the station and being in possession of guns and ammunition. Patrick Hennessy was secretary of Clare County Gaelic Athletic Association and a member of the county team. Con McMahon had served a term in prison in Limerick Jail in 1920.
On the 20th of January 1923 5 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. men were executed in Custume Barracks Athlone. All were executed by firing squad, the executions taking place at about 8am. The five men were:
On Monday the 22nd of January 1923 three men were executed by firing squad at Dundalk at 8am. The three were charged and found guilty of having arms and ammunition in their possession without proper authority.
On the 24th of January 1923 Section Vice Commandant Patrick Murphy, North Longford Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died as a result of wounds received the previous day during an exchange of fire with National Army Intelligence officers at or near Granard, County Longford. He died in Mater Hospital, Dublin. He was from Granard County Longford and employed as a horse trainer. He had served with the IRA during the War of Independence.
Two men were executed by the National Army on the 25th of January 1923 at Waterford. Both had been found guilty of procession of Arms and Ammunition at Ballinaclash, Clashmore, County Waterford.
Both men were executed at 8am at the Infantry Barracks.
On the 25th of January 1923 Scout Daniel D. Foley, Tralee Battalion, 1st Kerry Brigade, Fianna Éireann died from Acute Tuberculosis and Syncope, death was due to service. He was imprisoned during the Civil War from September 1922 in Tralee and Limerick. He was then transported on board the S. S. Slievenamon to Dublin between the 25th and the 29th of November 1922 and sent to Hare Park internment Camp. He was then transferred to the Curragh Military Hospital where he died. It is claimed that he was subject to ill treatment while a prisoner in Tralee and that the harsh conditions on the S. S. Slievenamon led to the illness which caused his death. He was born in 1902 and was employed as an Apprentice Bootmaker to Mr. Parker, Nelson Street, Tralee, County Kerry.
The following were executed Saturday the 27th of January 1923.
Both men were executed at Portlaoighise (Maryborough) at 8am. The following three men were executed at Birr County Offaly, all three had been found guilty by Court Martial of procession of Arms and Ammunition. The executions took place at 8am. All three came from Birr.
A soldier of the Anti Treaty forces was killed on the 28th of January 1923 while ambushing troops of the National Army at Feale’s Bridge, Kilmainham, Brosna County Kerry. He was,
On Sunday the 4th of February 1923 Michael McSweeney was shot dead by the National Army while he was attending a dance at the farm of a man named Moynihan at Shrone County Kerry. It was reported that the dance was being held to raise funds for the Irregulars, sentries posted by the Irregulars were surprised by the National Army, when the National Army troops entered the house McSweeney was reported to have fired on them, he was shot dead when fire was returned. Six other well-known Irregulars from the Rathmore district were arrested.
On Monday the 5th of February 1923 Nicholas Murphy, Enniscorthy, was shot dead during an attack on the guard at 125 Leinster Road, Dublin. An unarmed sentry challenged 4 men who approached 125 Leinster Road, the four men, one of which was Murphy, produced revolvers. Shots were fired at the sentry who was hit in the leg, another soldier who was on guard and armed returned fire. A sergeant-major who was Officer Commanding the guard and who was patrolling the area saw the incident and fired on the four men hitting Murphy in the neck. The men fled down Grosvenor Place and up Effra Road. The injured attacker was later found at 7 Effra Road bleeding from his wounds, he was taken by ambulance under escort to the Meath Hospital where he died early Tuesday morning from his wounds.
On the night of the 13th of February 1923 two young soldiers of the Anti Treaty forces were shot dead by the National Army in the hayshed of Lyon’s Farm Curraghane County Kerry. The two were,
On Saturday the 17th of February James St. John was shot dead by National Army Troops at Kilcooley, Thurles, County Tipperary. His remains were identified by Bridie Purcell, aged 17, and a member of Cumann na mBan. Four men were seen running from a house, they were called on to halt but failed to do so, the National Army opened fire. St. John was found dying on the road, he was armed with a rifle, the magazine loaded with five rounds.
On the 18th of February 1923 an Anti Treaty soldier was shot dead when he attempted to escape national Army custody, according to National Army reports the prisoner attempted to take an officers gun and was shot in the struggle, he was,
The funereal took place of two Anti Treaty officers killed in an encounter with national Army Troops in the Glen of Aherlow:
Both were buried in the same grave in the Republican Plot of Tipperary Cemetery.
On the 24th of February 1923 Thomas Gibson was executed by the free State after being found guilty by a General Court-martial held at Roscrea on the 18th of January, he was found guilty of treachery, on the 19th of November 1922 he left Maryborough (Portlaoise) Army Barracks with five rifles and a grenade, he was arrested with two well known Anti-Treaty IRA men on the 10th of January 1923.Thomas Gibson had joined the National Army, there is no record of service with the Pre-Truce IRA, he had served in the British Army during WW1 and defected to the Anti-Treaty IRA in November 1922.
Two Anti Treaty soldiers were killed when troops from the National Army exploded a mine to seal a dug-out in the Arigna Mountains County Leitrim on Wednesday the 28th of February 1923. The two men were named as:
On Tuesday the 6th of March 1923 an Anti Treaty soldier was killed near Gleesk County Kerry, he was,
Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteer Edward Cowman of The Leap Davidstown County Wexford died when he accidently shot himself at Brennan’s Farm. He is buried in Davidstown Cemetery.
On the 7th of March 1923 the following eight Anti Treaty forces were killed when while being held prisoner by the National Army were forced to clear an obstruction across Ballyseedy Bridge between Tralee and Killorglin County Kerry. A trip-mine concealed in the obstruction exploded killing the men who were:
Three National Army soldiers were injured in the explosion Captain Edward Breslin, Lieutenant Joseph Murtagh and Sergeant Ennis. Injuries received by Murtagh and Ennis were described as serious.
Another similar obstruction was found on the Countess’s Bridge, Killarney, County Kerry on the same day. National Army troops used Anti Treaty prisoners to clear this obstruction and while doing so a trip-mine exploded killing four men:
On Friday the 9th of March 1923 an Anti Treaty prisoner was killed while being transported from Killorglin to Tralee County Kerry. Although first named as Lawlor the prisoner was later identified as.
Official reports of the killing of James Taylor state he was shot while trying to escape but it is widely believed he was executed by the National Army. His brother Joseph Taylor was killed by Crown Forces on the 27th of February 1921.
On Sunday the 11th of March 1923 Anti-Treaty Irregular leader Francis (Frank) O’Grady was killed during a round-up in the Mountain Stage district of County Kerry. The National Army Troops surprised a group of Irregulars and during the ensuing gun-fight O’Grady was killed and nine Irregulars taken prisoner. The Anti-Treaty account of his death stated that Frank O’Grady was shot dead at Bahagh’s Workhouse while being held prisoner.
On the 10th of March 1923 a party of Anti-Treaty Irregulars raided the home of a man named Buggy of Ballyouskill near Ballyragget, County Kilkenny. Thomas Mealey was shot dead and another Irregular wounded, the Irregulars retreated leaving their dead comrade behind, his body was found the following morning, the deceased had a colt revolver in his hand.
On the 11th of March 1923 Lieutenant Patrick Stenson, 3rd Western Division, Anti-Treaty IRA was killed during an ambush between Swinford to Tubbercurry A large party of armed men had taken over the area around Charlestown, they wrecked houses and it was believed the action was to draw National Army soldiers from Swinford, as the National Army approached, they were ambushed, during the ambush a soldier of the National Army, Sergeant Henry Spelman, was also killed. (Stenson is also recorded as having died on the 13th of March).
On Monday the 12th of March 1923 a group of five Anti Treaty soldiers were killed at Caherciveen, County Kerry. The five men were:
All five were members of the Kerry Number 3 brigade.
Accounts differ as to the circumstances of the five men deaths. In a statement issued by National Army G.H.Q. it was stated that in the course of operations troops from Caherciveen came across a barricade north-east of the town, fire was opened on the troops and a battle ensued lasting two hours. During this engagement seven Anti-Treaty forces were captured all carrying arms. The prisoners were ordered to clear the barricade, while doing so a trip-mine exploded killing five of the Anti-Treaty troops and wounding nine National Army troops including Commandant J. J. Delaney and Lieutenant W. McEaldy.
The Anti-Treaty side of the story was. On Monday the 12th of March 1923 a group of five Anti Treaty soldiers being held by the National Army at Bahagh’s Workhouse, Caherciveen, County Kerry, were taken by members of the Dublin Guard on the pretext of being transported to Tralee. The five were taken a short distance from the work house where they were shot in the legs to prevent them from escaping they were then placed on a barricade containing a land-mine which was then exploded killing all five.
On Monday the 12th of March 1923 Hugh Haughton aged 18 of 8 Hamilton Street Dublin employed as a carpenter with the Dublin United Tramway Company was fatally wounded when he and another youth attacked a National Army Commandant . The attack occurred at about 7.15pm while the Officer was walking from Donore Avenue towards Washington Street Dublin City. The Officer told the inquiry into Haughton’s death that he was approaching the corner of Washington Street he met two men walking towards him, the two men passed him but when he turned into Washington Street the same two men were about one pace behind him. The two men produced revolvers, the Officer had a short Webley revolver in his pocket and fired point-blank at the two men, the deceased man was hit in the chest. Both men fired on the Officer before fleeing over some waste ground, the injured man reached Hamilton Street where a neighbour summoned a priest. The inquiry found the deceased man was shot by a soldier of the National Army in self-defence.
On Tuesday the 13th of March 1923 William Healy of 52 Dublin Street, Blackpool, Cork. was executed in Cork, he had been convicted of attempting to burn the house of Mrs Powell a sister of the Late General Michael Collins. He was charged with conspiracy to murder a person in that he did on the night of March the 8th 1923 conspire to murder one Commandant P D Scott of the 10th Infantry Battalion Cork. He was also charged with encouraging persons to commit an offence specified in Section 2 Sub-Section B of General Regulations as to the trails of civilians by military courts, in that he did conspire and encourage persons to damage and destroy property by fire, to wit, the house of Mrs Powell, Blarney Street Cork. Further with aiding and abetting an attack on National forces at the same place being in possession of a revolver without proper permission. The execution took place at 8am.
On the same day James O’Rourke of Upper Gloucester Street Dublin was executed in Dublin, O’Rourke was captured by National Army troops while he was attempting to blow up Jury’s Hotel Dublin on the 21st of February. O’Rourke was charged and found guilty of taking part on an attack on members of the National Army in Jury’s Hotel, Dame Street, Dublin and further with having in his possession, without proper authority, 1 Webley .45 revolver and 13 rounds of ammunition. The execution took place at 8am.
On the same day Michael Greery (Grealy) and Luke Burke of Keady, County Armagh (Henry Keenan*, Newcastle County Down) were executed at Mullingar County Westmeath for raiding banks in Oldcastle County Meath. Both men were captured by Troops from Ceannanus Mor, Kells, County Meath. The executions took place at the Barracks, immediately the men fell Rev. J Kelly and Rev. J P Finegan rushed forward to administer Last Rites. They were charged with taking part in an armed raid on the Hibernian and Northern Banks, Oldcastle, on the 27th of February 1923 and with being in possession of £385 19s and 11d of stolen money. Both executions were carried out at 8am. *Initall reports stated the name of one of the executed as Henry Keenan but official documents show that his real name was Luke Burke.
On Tuesday the 13th of March 1923 three men were executed in Wexford for their part in a raid on the home of Major M L Lakin, Horetown, Foulksmills, County Wexford, master of the Wexford Hunt. The three men were captured in possession of arms at the Major’s house on Thursday the 15th of February 1923. The executions took place at the County Hall, the County Hall which was formally the County Jail was commandeered by the National Army. In the afternoon a crowd, including members of Cumann na mBan, gathered outside the County Hall and recited prayers for the dead men.
On Wednesday 14th of March 1923 the following were executed by the National Army at Drumboe, Stranorlar County Donegal. All were tried and found guilty before a military court of being in procession of a large quantity of arms, ammunition and bombs including a German Egg Bomb.
On the 15th of March 1923 John Kevins was shot dead by three plain-clothes men believed to be members of the National Army at Carrinahone, Beaufort, County Kerry.
John Walsh, aged 23, a native of Kilmacthomas County Waterford died from wounds received the previous day while detained at Kilkenny Jail.
Evidence given at the inquest into his death heard John Walsh refused to attend roll call and was brought to the central yard of the prison where an altercation arose between Walsh and a Sergeant-Major when Walsh attempted to seize the Sargent-Major’s rifle, a soldier intervened and struck Walsh in the mouth with the butt end of his rifle. When the Military Governor came on the scene Walsh made an attempt to seize the Governor’s revolved, the Governor drew his revolved and fire at Walsh hitting him in the abdomen. Walsh was removed to the County Infirmary where he died the next day.
The coroner returned a verdict “That John Walsh died as a result of a bullet wound fired by an officer in an attempt by prisoner to disarm him. We are of the opinion that the shot was fired as a warning and without any intent to kill him and the cause of death was shock and toxaemia as a result of the bullet wound.”
On the 17th of March 1923 Anti Treaty soldier James Donovan, an ex-RIC man, died from wounds received in action near the Macgillycuddy Reeks, he was a native of Killorglin County Kerry.
On the 20th of March 1923 Anti Treaty soldier Jeremiah Casey was killed at Dunloe, Beaufort, County Kerry.
On the 22nd of March 1923 Michael Neary was wounded and captured at Albert Road Glenageary County Dublin, he died a few days later in St. Michael’s Hospital Dun Laoghaire. Reports state that Neary was shot by Free State Army Officer Lieutenant Smith as he lay on the ground after surrendering. He was shot several times in the lower body. Neary had fought in the War of Independence and on the Anti Treaty side in the Battle of Blessington, he served time in the Curragh Camp from which he escaped.
I.R.A. Anti-Treaty Captain Martin Hogan was abducted by a group of about ten men from Eccles Place Dublin on the 21st of April 1923, his body was found dumped at Grace Park Road Dublin the next day.
The following four soldiers of the Anti Treaty Army were shot dead on the 23rd of March 1923. A party of National Army troops were travelling from Wexford to Enniscorthy, heavy machine-gun fire was opened on them, when reinforcements arrived from Wexford Military barracks the fighting had ceased but the reinforcements pursued the attackers, it was during this pursuit that the four men were killed:
The four men were members of the Kyle Flying Column.
On Friday March the 23rd 1923 a soldier of the Anti Treaty forces was shot dead while attempting to blow-up the Carlton Cinema in Sackville Street Dublin, the dead man was named as:
On Sunday the 25th of March 1923 a soldier from the Anti Treaty Army was shot dead when a party of National Army troops were transporting prisoners from Dingle to Tralee County Kerry, the dead mans name was DanielRobert (Bob) McCarthy.
On Tuesday the 27th of March 1923 an inquest was held into the deaths of two men who were described as having met their deaths during Military Operations at Foilduff, Newport, County Tipperary. The two men were:
At the inquest evidence was given by soldiers of the National Army stating that they went to two houses where they encountered three men, the three men fired at the National Army troops and Sheehy and Ryan were killed in the ensuing gun-battle the third man, Hughes, surrendered.
James Walsh, Section Commander, Active Service Unit, 2nd Kerry Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was shot dead on the 27th of March 1923 by soldiers of the National Army at Mountfalvey, Scartaglen, County Kerry. He had been captured by National Army forces at Lyre, County Kerry on the 23rd of March 1923 and taken to Castleisland Barracks where he was held as a prisoner. On the 27th of March he was taken as a hostage, along with a David McCarthy, by National Army forces under the command of a Commandant Culhane and Lieutenants Eddie Burns (sic) and Gaffney, during a round up. It is claimed that while in the custody of a party of National Army troops under the command of Lieutenant Burns, and following the search of the home of a Mossie Crowley, Walsh was shot a number of times. Walsh had served with the Irish Volunteers and IRA from 1917 onwards and during the War of Independence, Truce Period and Civil War. John Walsh Junior, brother of James, also served with the IRA. At the time of his death he worked on the family farm.
On the 28th of March 1923 Volunteer John Fleming, 1st Battalion, 1st Kerry Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA was shot dead by members of the National Army when he was taken prisoner, he was being held at Ballymullen Barracks in Tralee. There are several versions of what happened with the National Army claiming he was shot while trying to escape and the family claiming he was murdered and his body buried at Tralee Workhouse. John Fleming was from Kerry and employed as a painter and had served with the Irish Volunteers and IRA from 1919 to the time of his death.
On Thursday the 29th of March 1923 an inquest into the death of Jerome Lyons a native of New Chapel near Clonmel County Tipperary. Lyons was shot when he grabbed the revolver of the interrogating office while being questioned at Kickham Barracks. Lyons was 26 years old.
The body of Robert (Bobby) Bonfield was found at Dowling’s Farm Newlands Cross Clondalkin County Dublin. He had been arrested in Leeson Street Dublin. Bonfield was a Dental Student.
On Friday the 30th of March 1923 the body of an Anti Treaty soldier was found on Upper Rathmines Road near Tranquilla Convent Dublin. The body of the deceased had 22 bullet wounds. The jury at the inquest found that Thomas O’Leary had been murdered and that the military authorities were un-corporative.
On Sunday the 1st of April 1923 an Anti Treaty soldier was killed when National Troops raided a dance hall on the Armagh Border at Ballybinsby, the dead man was identified as:
On the 1st of April 1923 Jerry Kiely was killed when a party of national Army troops raided a house at Lisvernane, Glen of Aherlow, County Tipperary. The raiding party made up of 18 or 20 men arrived at the house of Stephen McDonagh, leading the raiding party national Army Captain John O’Dea forced the front door and was confronted by Gerry Kiely who was armed with a pistol and a Thompson sub-machine gun, Kiely opened fire mortally wounding Captain O’Dea who died about 15 minutes after being hit. Kiely escaped the house but was confronted by the remaining National Army troops outside, he was shot dead in the ensuing gun fight. Jerry Kiely had served with the I.R.A. during the War of Independence, after the Truce in July 1921 he went to the USA returning after the Battle of the Four Courts.
Two known Anti Treaty I.R.A. Members were arrested in Dublin, their bodies were later found on Ratoath Road Cabra County Dublin. The two men were:
An inquest into the death of Nicholas Corcoran held in Ballina last Thursday heard Nicholas Corcoran formally a clerk in the National Bank Ballina was shot dead by the National Army, he was a well know Anti Treaty IRA Volunteer. Corcoran had been captured by the National Army and as a prisoner was taken with three other prisoners to clear a mine on the Midland and Great Western Railway. The incident happened between Ballina and Foxford County Mayo. Corcoran and the three other prisoners were ordered to clear a telegraph pole from the railway line so that National Army troops could fire at what appeared to be a land-mine. In order to force the prisoners to remove the telegraph pole Sergeant Boyle of the National Army raised his rifle pointing it at Corcoran, he asked his commanding officer “will I put the wind up them” Sergeant Boyle fired and hit Corcoran killing him. At the inquiry into Corcoran’s death Sergeant Boyle claimed he had picked up another soldiers rifle, had he used his own rifle which was provided with a cut-off it would not have fired. The jury at the inquest returned a verdict that Corcoran had died of shock and haemorrhage as a result of a bullet wound inflicted by Sergeant Daniel Boyle of the National Army and from the evidence before them they could not say if the shot was fired by accident or deliberately. The Coroner stated that this was the third case of this type he had heard in Ballina recently and he hoped more supervision would be exercised over the National Army in future. Nicholas Corcoran was 20 years old and was an active of the Anti Treaty forces n Roscommon, Mayo and Sligo. Corcoran was a native of Dunmore County Galway, his father was manager of the National Bank Athenry.
The following Anti-Treaty Troops were Killed in Action Friday the 6th of April 1923 near Glencar County Kerry, the Anti-Treaty forces were about to execute a Milesman employed by the Great Southern and Western Railway when they were surprised by troops from the 27th Battalion of the National Army. In the ensuing battle the following Anti-Treaty troops were confirmed killed:
The Connacht Tribune reported on the attack which took place at Headford County Galway on Sunday the 8th of April 1923. Two soldiers of the National Army and two Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteers were killed when a party of Irregulars attacked a building formally known as the National Bank which was in use as the National Army barracks. Two Irregulars, wearing no boots, crept up to the door of the building where they placed a mine, when the mine exploded the National troops returned fire on the Irregulars who were occupying the shop of Mr Thady McHugh which was opposite the National Army barracks. During the ensuing gun-battle in which the Regular Army used a machine gun two National Army soldiers died. ALthough the headline on the Connacht Tribune report stated two Anti-Treay Volunteers were killed only one name was given in the report.
On the 9th of April 1923 Anti-Treaty Volunteer Martin Moloney died from wounds received the previous day when Free State Troops surrounded his father’s house at Cloontismara County Clare. Moloney’s father said his son was shot by the Free State Army after he had surrendered to them.
On the 10th of April 1923 John MacSweeney (also McSweeney) died from Tabes Mesenterica (a wasting disease of childhood characterized by chronic inflammation of the lymphatic glands of the mesentery, attended with caseous degeneration). Application initially rejected as the Army Pensions Board found his death was deemed to be not attributable to service. Catherine MacSweeney made a further application under subsequent under the Army Pensions Act. The Army Pensions Board found that the death was due to Pre-Truce and Post-Truce service. Widow claims that deceased was arrested and imprisoned in Wormwood Scrubs in January 1920 and went on hunger strike in June 1920. She also claims that he was arrested in November 1920 and interned in Ballykinlar before his release in December 1921. Also reported that he took part in the Civil War in Limerick and was treated in North Infirmary Hospital, Cork from 29 July 1922. Noted that he was captured by National Forces and imprisoned in Limerick gaol. He was later removed to the City Home, Limerick.
On Wednesday the 11th of April 1923 the following six men were executed by the National Army at Tuam County Galway. All six were found guilty of having rifles and ammunition at Cluide County Galway on the 21st of February 1923. All were executed at 8am.
On Wednesday the 11th of April 1923 the death of Liam Lynch was announced. He had been seriously injured in a shoot-out at Knockfallen at the foot of the Knockmealdown Mountains near Newcastle County Tipperary on Tuesday the 10 of April.
On Friday the 13th of April 1923 a patrol of National Army troops went to investigate reports of Anti Treaty troops sheltering in a hay barn. The National Army troops discovered three men in the hay barn, the following Anti Treaty soldiers died,
On the 16th of April 1923 two Anti-Treaty Irregulars were killed in a Castleblake Castle near Rosegree, Clonmel County Tipperary. The Anti-Treaty Irregulars were occupying the ruins of Castleblake Castle, the National Army were aware of their presence and two columns of National Army Troops surrounded the building, Lieutenant Kennedy of the National Army entered Castleblake and called on the Irregulars to surrender, the Irregular’s Brigade Adjutant, Cleary surrendered, Somers hurled a Mills Bomb at the National Army Troops, wounding nine, and whilst firing a pistol made an attempt to escape, he only made it to the door before being shot in the head by a sentry at the castle gate. English managed to make it about thirty yards from the castle before he was also shot dead by National Army Troops.
Nine National Army Soldiers and two Officers were wounded in the fight. The two officers, Lieutenant Kennedy and Captain Quinlan who were first to enter the castle received serious injuries.
On the 16th of April 1923 at Clashmealcon Cave County Kerry several Anti Treaty troops engaged in a stand-off with National Army troops resulting in the deaths of several Anti Treaty troops. Several attempts were made by the National Army troops to capture the Anti Treaty troops in the cave including attempts to burn them out using turf soaked in paraffin and throwing two land mines into the cave. Two Anti Treaty troops lost their lives while attempting to scale a cliff to escape from the cave, they both fell to their deaths, they were,
Another of the Anti Treaty troops lost his life when he offered to surrender and rope which he was climbing to get out of the cave snapped causing him to fall. National Army troops immediately opened fire killing him instantly, he was,
On the 17th of April the Irish Independent reported on the death of John Moore of Vallymount County Wicklow who had been shot by Free State Army Soldiers in Mooney’s public house in Kilbride County Wicklow. Several Free State soldiers enter Mooney’s to search for another wanted man, one of the soldiers recognised Moore as an Anti-Treaty I.R.A. man who was operating as part of a Flying Column in the area. Moore is reported to have bolted for the back door, after several calls to halt and a warning shot being fired over his head Moore failed to stop a soldier fired and hit Moore.
On the 19th of April 1923 Volunteer James Egan, 3rd Tipperary Brigade Active Service Unit Anti-Treaty IRA died at Callan Hospital, County Kilkenny from the effects of gunshot wounds received by him the previous day at Poulacapple, County Tipperary in an exchange of fire with National Army forces. He was 27 years old and employed in the family egg exporting business.
On Saturday the 21st of April 1923 the Irish Time reported on the inquest into the death of Liam Lynch Chief of Staff of the Anti Treaty forces who died from wounds received when he was shot Crohane Mountain south West of Clogheen County Kerry at 10 O’clock in the morning. Lynch was 33 or 34 years old and unmarried.
On the 25th of April 1923 3 soldiers of the Anti Treaty Army were executed at Ballymullen Barracks County Kerry for their part in the Clashmealcon Cave stand-off. Despite 3 Anti Treaty and 2 National Army soldiers having already died as a result of the incident at the cave and also several pleas for the death sentences to be commuted the executions went ahead. The three men were part of an Anti-Treaty Column under the command of Lyons who was killed at Clashmealcon Cave, they were also part of a Column which held up Ballyduff Post Office, the burning of the Civic Guard Station at Ballyheigue and taking Civic Guard uniforms.
The 3 men were:
On Thursday the 26th of April 1923 Motor Driver and Machine Gunner Patrick Mahony, Ennis Company, Mid-Clare Brigade Anti-Treaty IRA was executed at Home Barracks, Ennis, County Clare. Patrick Mahony had served with the IRA from January 1922 onwards and during the Truce Period and Civil War. He had served with the British Army during the First World War from 1915 to 1917, had suffered from ‘shell shock’, and was in receipt of a British Army pension at the time of his death. During the War of Independence he had worked as a civilian employee at Cork Military Barracks and had supplied intelligence information for the IRA during. He was found guilty of the killing of a Free State Soldier on Carmody Street Ennis on the 21st of April. On the 25th of April the Anti-Treaty had announced a ceasefire but the Free State Army claimed the action O’Mahony had taken part in occurred before the ceasefire it did not apply.The execution was carried out at 7am. He was born on the 25th of April 1898 and employed as a driver and mechanic by Martin Tierney, Abbey Street, Ennis, County Clare.
On Saturday the 28th of April 1923 the Irish Times reported that the body of an Anti Treaty soldier was discovered in a bog in Glencar County Kerry, it is reported that he was killed in a recent engagement with National Army troops. The dead man was named:
On the 2nd of May 1923, 2 days after the end of the Civil War, Anti-Treaty Volunteers Christopher Quinn aged 21 and William O’Shaughnessy aged 18 were executed at Home Barracks Ennis, both men had been arrested in Ennis on the day Free State soldier Privet Stephen Canty had been killed and charged with killing Canty.
Christopher Quinn joined the IRA in 1920 and was employed as a tailor with Richard Guiton, 35 Market Street, Ennis. He was serving with the Ennis Company, 1st battalion, Mid-Clare Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA.
William O’Shaughnessy, Ennis Company, 1st Battalion, Mid Clare Brigade Anti-Treaty IRA, he was born in Ennis and worked as a postman, he joined the IRA in 1922
Both are buried at Drumcliff Cemetery, Ennis, County Clare
On the 15th of May 1923 Officer Commanding Neil Plunkett Boyle, 3rd Battalion, 2nd Dublin Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died from the effects of gunshot wounds received by him at Knocknadruce, Blessington, County Wicklow. He was captured when the column, of which he was commanding officer, was surrounded by National Army forces. Accounts of his death were the usual shot when surrendered shot while trying to escape. Born in 1895 he was from Donegal.
On the 24th of May 1923 John Quinn died as a result of wounds received during an engagement with Free State Forces at Springfield near Dundalk. He was from Newry and died in Saint Bricin’s military hospital in Dublin where he was being treated for his wounds. The inquest jury returned a verdict that he died from septic absorption following gun-shot wounds, the jury added that they were not in a position to say what caused the wounds.
On Wednesday the 30th of May 1923 at 8am two men were executed at Tuam County Galway. The two men were arrested by military after a close search of the country side after an armed robbery of the Munster and Leinster bank in Athenry. They were found guilty by military court of taking part in the robbery and being in possession of stolen money and Webley revolvers, the robbery took place on the 22nd of May 1923. Both men are stated to have admitted guilt and claimed that the robbery had no political significance and related to problems they were having with farm repayments. The two executed men were:
*The military believed the robbery had a political link and the men had robbed the bank to raise funds for the Anti-Treaty forces. If the robbery had no political link it would be a civil crime and the men would most likely not have been executed.
On the 10th of June 1923 Doctor Francis P. Ferran TD died at the Military Hospital, The Curragh, County Kildare from Erysipelas (a bacterial infection in the upper layer of the skin) and Septic Pneumonia (lung infection). He was a TD representing Sligo-Mayo East, he was imprisoned at the start of the Civil War and at the time of his arrest he was Battalion Officer Commanding, 2 Battalion (Foxford Battalion), North Mayo Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA. He graduated from Queens University Belfast in 1910.
On the 13th of June 1923 James Morrissey Kilkenny Brigade Active Service Unit, Anti-Treaty IRA was killed in Kilkenny Jail while trying to escape. He had joined the Volunteers/IRA in 1919 and served throughout the War of Independence. His wife Julia Morrissey stated that James Morrissey had been in receipt of a British Army pension prior to their marriage on the 6th of June 1920. He was born in 1895 and was from Kilkenny.
On the 2nd of May 1923 27 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteers escaped from the County Jail in Wexford. One of the escapees was Michael (Mick) Redford. He was still on the run on the 22nd of June when he was shot. Accounts of the shooting vary, the Anti-Treaty Republican side state Redford was unarmed and although shot and mortally wounded on the evening of the 22nd he was left to die and his body not recovered until the next day. He was shot twice at The Cotts, Tacusmshane, County Wexford.
On the 28th of June 1923 Anti-Treaty IRA Volunteer Cornelius Boyle died from pulmonary tuberculosis and cardiac failure at Newbridge Barracks, the cause of death was deemed to have been attributable to his IRA service. Owen Boyle had served with the Irish Volunteers and IRA from 1917 onwards during the War of Independence and Civil War and was captured by National Army forces in September 1922. At the time of his death he was a member of the 1st Northern brigade Active Service Unit. He was from Donegal and born in 1902.
On the 2nd of August 1923 Volunteer Joseph Whitty 4th Battalion, South Wexford Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died at the Military Hospital, The Curragh, County Kildare, from Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Heart Failure which was deemed to have been attributable to his service. He joined the IRA in August 1922, he was 18 years old and from Wexford.
On the 3rd of August 1923 the body of Henry McEntee was found at Dubber Cross near Jamestown Road Finglas County Dublin. It was alleged that McEntee had received treats from Oriel House.
On the 17th of August 1923 Anti-Treaty Volunteer Michael Bennett, Active Service Unit, 1st Eastern Division, South Louth Brigade, died at Newry Workhouse, Newry, County Down from General Tuberculosis, his death was attributable to his service with the IRA. Michael Bennett had served with Na Fianna Éireann and the IRA during the War of Independence and Civil War. He was captured in July 1922 and interned in Mountjoy and at the Curragh. During his internment at the Curragh he was put in the 'Glass House' as punishment for his part in the escape from the Curragh of a number of IRA prisoners including John McCoy and Michael O'Hanlon.
On the 2nd of September 1923 Volunteer John Gibbons, F Company (Tiernaur Company), 2nd Battalion, West Mayo Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died from Phthisis at Mayo County Hospital, Castlebar, County Mayo, cause of death deemed to be due to his service with the IRA. John Gibbons' had injured his leg while carrying a wounded IRA colleague, Anthony Keane, to safety during a round up by the National Army on the 24th of November 1922, he again injured this leg while attempting to break railway lines between Mallaranny and Newport in County Mayo on the 6th of January 1923. Due to these injuries Gibbons' developed tuberculosis in that leg. Although the leg was amputated, he subsequently died. He served with the Irish Volunteers and IRA from 1917 onwards during both the War of Independence and Civil War. He was from Westport County Mayo and aged about 26 years old when he died.
Patrick J Hanlon. Born in 1906 shot dead on the 4th of September 1923 by a sentry at Kilkenny Jail while being held prisoner. He was 17 years old and a member of A Company 3rd Tipperary Brigade Fianna Eireann.
Deaths After the Civil War
The affects of the Civil War were felt by those who took part long after it was over. The following is a list of Anti-Treaty Volunteers who died from the results of taking part in hunger strikes.
Captain Nicholas Hawes Ballydonohue, Lisdoonvarna, Mid-Clare Brigade died on the 12th of March 1924, his death was deemed to have been due to his IRA service. He served with the Irish Volunteers and IRA from 1917 onwards. In 1921 he was arrested and subsequently physically mistreated by British forces. He was again arrested by National Army forces in January 1923 during the Civil War and interned at Limerick and Newbridge until November of that year. He was released due to ill health.
On the 12th of October 1923 the body of Noel Lemass was found at Featherbed Mountain Rathfarmham. The body could only be identified by his clothes and spectacles. Noel Lemass was the brother of Séan Lemass, had been abducted on Drury Street Dublin in July. Although the Civil War had ended by this time it was alleged that Noel Lemass was killed for his alleged part in the killing of Sean Hales although there is no evidence that Lemass was involved in the death of Hales.
On the 20th of November Denis (Dinny) Barry died in the hospital wing of the Curragh Camp after being on hunger strike since October the 19th. Barry, who was employed as a commercial traveller was Staff Officer of the 1st Cork Brigade, Anti-Treaty Forces, and Officer Commanding of the Cork Republican Police. He had been in the Curragh Camp since October 1922. He was removed to the hospital wing on the 19th of November and died at 2.45am on the 20th.
Joseph (Joe) Lacey died from complications as a result of Hunger Strike at the Curragh Hospital on the 24th of December 1923. He was 25 years old and the brother of Captain Denis Lacey who had been killed in action in March 1923 while fighting on the Anti-Treaty I.R.A. side.
On the 13th of January 1924 Joseph Anthony Walsh died at the Lourdes Hospital, Dublin, from Cardiac Failure his illness was deemed to have been attributable to his service particularly while on the run during the Civil War. He was about 24 years old and served with East Mayo Brigade Active Service Unit. He had been an Engineering Student, University College Galway. He was from Mayo.
Mary McBride. Despatch Carrier, Cumann na mBan, Donegal. Born in 1905 died on the 19th of May 1924. She died from Phthisis Pulmonalis (disease of the lungs) was deemed to have arisen from her service with Cumann na mBan. She joined Cumann na mBan in 1920 and served as a despatch carrier during the War of Independence and the Civil War. She carried despatches through British lines for the IRA at great personal risk and despite threats to her life. She continued this work during the Civil War. Arrested during the Civil War by National Army forces in March 1923, she was held in Bucrana, County Donegal before being transferred to Kilmainham Prison in Dublin via Sligo. She was transferred from Buncrana, County Donegal to Sligo, along with a number of other prisoners, in an open lorry in the middle of the night during very severe weather conditions, before being transported by train to Dublin, still in their wet clothes. During her imprisonment she went on hunger strike on two separate occasions. She was released from prison in October 1923.
On the 13th of December 1924 Jeremiah Hegarty, Volunteer, 3rd battalion, 3rd Kerry Brigade, Anti-Treaty IRA died from vascular disease of the heart and syncope which was deemed to have been attributable to his service with the IRA. He was from Kerry and aged 30 years old at the time of his death, he was employed as a Baker in the family Bakery in Kilgarvan, County Kerry.
On the 11th of November 1925 John Egan from Curradown, Ferbane County Offaly died at Jervis Street, Dublin from Potts Disease and heart failure, death was deemed to be as a result of his service with the IRA. John Egan served with the Irish Volunteers and IRA during the War of Independence as a Company Captain. He took part in an attack on Clara RIC Barracks in June 1920 and spent much of that conflict on the run. During the Civil War he took part in Anti-Treaty IRA attacks and fighting against National Army forces in Ferbane. He was imprisoned during 1922 and 1923 at Custume Barracks, Athlone and at the Curragh.
On the 22nd of January 1927 Patrick Allman Battalion Officer Commanding, 4th Battalion, 2nd Kerry Brigade died from pulmonary tuberculosis, cause of death attributed to service with the Anti-Treaty IRA. He was interned in Newbridge from 22 August 1922 until his escape in October 1922 when he walked from Newbridge back to Kerry. He was wounded in march 1923 and was taken by comrades to a hut in the Kerry mountains. Unable to obtain proper food or medical treatment he contracted pulmonary tuberculosis form which he died in 1927.He was 25 years old and from Rockfield, Beaufort, County Kerry, he was employed as a farmer.
On the 19th of August 1929 Daniel McCormack, Captain, 4th Brigade (Tuam Brigade), 2nd Western Division, Anti-Treaty IRA, died as a result of wounds received during an Anti-Treaty IRA attack on a National Army post at Headford, County Galway on the 8th of April 1923. As a result of these wounds he had to have an arm and a leg amputated and he also received a gunshot wound to the lower jaw.