War of Independence
On Wednesday the 11th of July 1917 Daniel Scanlon died as a result of a gunshot wound received during the celebrations of the East Clare election results, a victory parade was held on Tuesday the 10th. Daniel Scanlon was about 25 years old, he died about 5am on the Wednesday morning. Two RIC policemen were implicated in the shooting, Constable Lyons and Sergeant Macaulay. The inquest jury, accompanied by Sergeant Macaulay, went to the home of the deceased to view the body, Sergeant Macaulay was refused entry when the sister of Daniel Scanlon slammed the door in his face. The victory parade started from Castle Green and turning round at the Police Station a brick was thrown at the Police Station breaking a window, about twenty minutes after the window was broken the shot that killed Daniel Scanlon was fired. It was reported that around twenty-five shots were fired over a period.
The jury returned a verdict of murder against Constable Lyons and that whoever gave the order was equally guilty. After the funeral mass at the parish church Ballybunion Daniel Scanlon was buried in the Scanlon family plot in Killaheeney Cemetery. The funeral was attended by Austin Stack and several other leading Sinn Fein members from Listowel.
Although the funeral was attended by leading members of Sinn Fein and the Volunteers there was no suggestion Daniel Scanlon was a member of either. There appears to have been no action taken against Constable Lyons for the murder and although evidence given at the inquest implicated Sergeant Macaulay as the officer who gave the order to shoot no action appears to have been taken against him.
The Irish War of Independence January 1919 to December 1921
On Saturday night at about eight o’clock at Killahurk near the village of Carrigallen County Leitrim a framer named John Hand aged 45 was shot dead, he was sitting at the kitchen table with his wife and children when a masked man entered with a gun and shot Mr. Hand in the head, he died instantly.
On Tuesday evening between seven and eight o’clock Alfred Person aged 46 of Optic Lodge, 146 Richmond Road Dublin was shot dead in his home. Mr Pearson had a small collection of old pistols and rifles and it is thought he was shot when he tried to prevent raiders from taking the guns. His son was a Staff Serjeant in the British Army.
Sunday the 30th of March 1919 John C. Milling, the Resident Magistrate Westport County Mayo, was shot and mortally wounded. After the shooting the area was declared a Military Area. Mr. Milling was shot and mortally wounded at his residence at about 11pm on Saturday night. It was reported locally that shot because he had sent I.R.A. Volunteers to prison for unlawful assembly and drilling. Milling was a retired R.I.C. District Inspector and was aged 46 when he was shot.
Matthew Murphy a commercial traveler aged 22 was shot dead by a British Army sentry at New Inn near Dundalk on Wednesday the 4th of June 1919.
Patrick Studdert died on the 3rd of July 1919, he was shot by Sergeant Wolsley of the Scottish Horse. Studdert was a fisherman, the record of the inquest into his death gives his address as Kilketf but I think this is an error and should read Kilkee County Clare.
Francis Murphy of Glan County Clare was shot dead by British Soldiers on the 23rd of August 1919, he was 15 years old. He died as a result of bullet wounds received while sitting by the fire reading a book. The inquest into his death found the Military responsible but this was refuted by the military after they claimed to have carried out an extensive investigation.
On Wednesday the 3rd of September 1919 the body of Farmer Mr. Owen Daly was found on the road between Broadford and the townland of Curraghmore, he had been shot several time and death was believed to have been instant. Mr Daly had extensive farmland in the area and also another farm at Ashford. Mr. Daly had police protection some years ago and it is believed this had some connection with his murder.
On Wednesday the 17th of December Mr Michael Blanchfield was shot dead at Nohoval County Cork. The inquest returned a verdict of wilful murder against persons unknown. He was shot dead about fifty yards from his home. He was unmarried and had been a teacher in the village school for about twenty years.
Laurence Kennedy of Lucan Dublin employed as a farm labourer by Mr. Patrick Monks North King Street Dublin. Laurence Kennedy died as a result of a struggle with a British Army officer Second Lieutenant Frederick Boast of the 2nd South Lancashire Regiment in the Phoenix Park Dublin in the early hours of the 28th of December 1919. Boast, who was in charge of the Guard at the Viceregal Lodge in the Park, heard gun shots and went with four other soldiers to investigate, the patrol met Kennedy who they challenged. Kennedy refused to stop and was shot dead in a struggle with Boast, Boast was also killed in the struggle. It was not stated that Kennedy had any connection with Sinn Fein or the IRA, the inquest into Kennedy’s death heard he was deaf in one ear and was wearing a bandage around his head from an earlier wound unconnected with the incident.
Michael D’Arcy of Cooraclare County Clare was shot dead while working in a field when fired on by R.I.C., there are several differing accounts of events and D’Arcy is recorded in some modern publications as a member of the I.R.A. D’Arcy fled when fired on and while fleeing either fell or jumped into a river, Police continued firing on the spot where he entered the river and also fired on people attempting to rescue D’Arcy.
On Sunday the 8th of February 1920 Patrick Thornton, an ex-Connaught Ranger, died as a result of bullet wounds he received on Monday the 2nd of February. The inquest held in Galway County Hospital was told that Thornton was shot when held-up by a party of armed men.
On Saturday the 14th of February 1920 Mrs. Ellen Morris aged 61 was shot dead at her home by a raiding party of six men. Mrs. Morris lived with her husband in the Village of The Ballagh Enniscorthy County Wexford. The house was raid by six men in a search from guns and ammunition, Mrs. Morris attempted to force one of the raiders out of her house using a shovel, the raider first fired into the kitchen ceiling, when this failed to stop Mrs. Morris he shot her dead. The raiders continued to search the house for some time after murdering Mrs. Morris, they also refused to allow her family to go for a Priest.
Michael Ensko from Ennis County Clare died when struck by a British Army lorry on the 14th of February 1920.
On Tuesday the 2nd of March 1920 commercial traveller John Charles Byrne, aged 34, of 34 Laurel Bank, May Road, Romford, Essex was shot dead at Ballymun, Glasnevin, Dublin. Initially there was considerable confusion over the identity of the dead man because he was staying at a local hotel, the Granville, Dublin under the name Mr Jameson. The body was identified and claimed by his widow and returned to England for burial.
On Wednesday morning Frank M. Shaw-Taylor D.L. J.P. of Moor Park Athenry County Galway was shot dead near Coshla while on his way to Galway Fair. Travelling by motorcar with his chauffeur they encountered a cart across the road about a mile from Moor Park close to Egan’s public house, as the chauffeur was attempting to remove the obstruction a volley of eight to ten shots rang out, Shaw-Taylor was hit several times and died at the scene. The chauffeur James Barrett was wounded in the attack.
On Thursday the 11th of March 19120 a farmer from the Corofin district of County Galway was shot dead in a neighbours house by an armed gang who raided for arms. Martin Cullinane was standing by the fireplace when for no reason one of the raiders shot him, he died within an hour. Martin Cullinane was 45 years old and described by neighbours as a peaceful man.
On Monday the 2nd of March 1920 at 9.30pm 120 soldiers of the Royal Berkshire Regiment were returning from a performance at the theatre, the soldiers were singing Rule Britannia and God Save the King, when they were attacked by a hostile crowd on South Richmond Street Dublin.
A man and a woman were killed by revolver shots and another man was injured by a bullet wound in the wrist. One soldier was shot through the chest and four soldiers wounded by missiles. The two dead civilians were taken to the Meath Hospital, they were identified as:
On Thursday the 1st April, 1920, 6 Catholics were murdered in Arnon Street Belfast.
It was reported that Thomas Dwyer died in mysterious circumstances at Bouladuff known locally as The Ragg in County Tipperary. No details were given relating to the circumstances of Mr. Dwyer’s death. An Inquest into the circumstance of the death James McCarthy a Baker aged 24 who was shot in his own house in Finna Road Thurles on Saturday morning was held at the Court House Thurles, County Tipperary.
On Thursday the 14th of April 1920 three people were shot dead in Miltown Malbay County Clare. A large crowd were celebrating the release of Sinn Fein prisoners fro Mountjoy. It was alleged that shots were fired at a joint Military Police patrol, the patrol returned fire killing three of the crowd. The three people were:
The first inquest into the deaths of the three men was declared informal by Dublin Castle because the legal requirements for a formal inquest had not been met. The inquest was formally reopened and the bodies of the three men had to be exhumed in the church yard in Kilcorcoran.
On Sunday the 25th of April 1920 a young man named John Gascoyne was found shot dead on a piece waste ground fifty yards from his home at Brookfield Blackrock County Dublin. A young woman, Agnes Byrne was also found in the same location suffering form serious wounds. Both were removed to Monkstown hospital where the young woman remained in a serious condition, she was given a blood transfusion in an effort to save her life. The young man was the son of a well know Sinn Fein activist John Gascoyne who has been detained in Frongoch after the 1916 Rising.
Philip Dowling, a former Constable in the RIC was shot dead on the streets of Arklow on the night of the 26th of April 1920. A large crowd led by a marching band and waving Sinn Fein flags had assembled near the Military Camp in the town when fighting broke between the Military and the crowd. The inquest into the death of Dowling found he was killed by a bullet fired by the Military without justification.
On Saturday the 15th of April 1920 James Dalton, well known for his Sinn Fein activities, was shot dead by a group of men in Clare Street Limerick. Dalton worked as an engineer for Limerick Gas Works.
In Rioting on Sunday night in Londonderry a young ex-soldier Bernard Doherty was shot dead when Unionist ex-soldiers wearing masks took possession of Carlisle Road driving pedestrians off the streets.
On Wednesday night William J McCabe was shot dead in Killiney County Dublin. McCabe who been employed as head gardener for the Right Honourable Laurence Waldron P.C. for the past ten years, was stopped by masked men at the bottom of Killiney Hill. McCabe though it was a prank played by locals and tried to brush by and was immediately shot in the head, he was a native of Kilcock County Kildare.
On Sunday the 23rd of May 1920 Peter Kelly of Aghagad County Roscommon was shot dead in his home. The jury at his inquest returned a verdict that he was killed by persons unknown with deliberate intention of killing the deceased.
On Sunday June the 6th 1920 while a bystander at a gun fight between Rebels and Police Peter Charles McCreesh of Aughanduff County Armagh was shot dead in the crossfire. Two policemen were injured in the gun fight, Sergeant Holland and Constable Rossdale, Sergeant Holland later died from his wounds.
On Friday the 18th of June 1920 farmer’s son Thomas Brett died in the Mater Hospital from wounds received on the morning of Tuesday the 8th of June. Brett, who lived with his father at Moyaliffe Drombane Thurles County Tipperary, was admitted to the hospital on the morning of the 8th with three bullet wounds, witnesses at the inquest were unable to say how Brett received his wounds.
On Friday the 18th of June 1920 Patrick Loughran aged 27 a native of Dungannon died from gunshot wounds in the Royal Victoria Hospital Belfast. He was admitted to the hospital on Thursday. The inquest into his death found there was no evidence to show who was responsible for the death of Loughran.
On the night of Saturday the 19th of June 1920 at about 10.30am Thomas Farren, a Nationalist, was shot dead while standing in a doorway in Long Tower Street the bullet was reported to have been fired from the Fountain Street Direction. Farren was aged 27 and employed as a fowl dealer, he was hit in the abdomen and died from the wound an hour later.
On Saturday the 19th of June 1920 Edwin A Price was shot dead outside The Diamond Hotel in the Diamond area of Londonderry, Price was an ex-Soldier having served with the R.A.M.C. during WW1, he was visiting his brother in Derry. A police witness at the inquest said that there had been general shooting in the area that night and it was believed Price was struck by one of four bullets fired by a group of civilians standing near Bishop Street. Price was hit with one bullet in the lower part of the stomach which caused two wounds one on entry and one on exit, Price died from internal haemorrhage caused by bullet wounds.Price had emigrated to New York in 1905 but returned and enlisted in 1914, he was a bookkeeper by profession and was 46 years old when he was killed.
On Saturday the 19th of June 1920 James McVeigh, a Nationalist, was killed during rioting in Derry. A witness at the inquest gave evidence that he saw McVeigh standing at the corner of Bishop’s Street and Long Tower Street when McVeigh was killed, Robert Rankin was charged with his murder.
On the morning of Sunday the 20th of June 1920 James Doherty, a Nationalist aged 32 was shot dead as he stood at a doorway in Long Tower Street Belfast. Doherty who was from Tyrconnell Street was employed as a French Polisher died ten minutes after being hit.
Mrs Eliza Moore who was wounded during rioting in Derry died later from her wounds in hospital. The inquest into her death found she had been murdered by a person or persons unknown.
A similar verdict was returned in the inquest of Peter Campbell, aged 18 from Dungiven who was shot while crossing the River Foyle in a boat. It was stated in evidence that the fatal shots were fired from the hill above Carlisle Bridge.
On Monday the 24th of June 1920 a known Sinn Fein activist Cornelius Crowley was shot dead in his father’s house in Barrack Road Cork. No inquest was held into the death due to the severe difficulty the police had in obtaining a jury, District Inspector and head constable Gleeson complained to the Coroner that policemen were abused and insulted by the people requested for jury service.
On the morning of the Friday the 25th of June 1920 James O’Kane aged 25 was shot and fatally wounded during rioting in Derry. A one-armed ex-soldier James Gray was charged with his murder.
On Wednesday the 30th of June James Dobbin aged 32 of York Street Derry died from wounds received when he was shot in John’s Street and subsequently thrown into the Foyle on the 21st of June. He was described as a Unionist and the 19th victim of the recent rioting in Derry City. Medical evidence given at the inquest stated that the bullet had entered his left shoulder and exited at the base of his left lung, his back was broken and he had several scalp wounds.
On the night of Saturday the 3rd of July 1920 Richard Lumley, aged 60, was shot dead by the Military at Holycross County Tipperary. A large force of soldiers and police were on duty at the inquest which was attended by a large crowd of people at the Abbey Hotel. Evidence was given by the Military that Lumley was one of a party of men who attacked a relief force going to Holycross. Many people objected to this assertion stating that Lumley was non-political and was described by many witnesses as ‘half-witted.’
An inquest into the death of Michael Small found he had been shot by the Military near Thurles County Tipperary. The inquest found Small had met a violent death and died a Martyr for his country.
On the morning of Sunday the 18th of July 1920 James Bourke aged 42 was killed by a military patrol near North Gate Bridge Cork. Bourke was an ex-British soldier and was admitted to the North Infirmary at 3am Sunday morning, he was suffering from a large gaping wound through which the liver protruded on the lower right side of the chest. Dr D Fennell told the inquest the wounds were inflicted by a bayonet or other sharp instrument used with great force.
William John Sterritt aged 17 Victoria Street, Banbridge, died from a bullet wound to the head received during the looting of the premises of Daniel Monaghan Scarva Street. A crowd attacked the premises and Mr. Monaghan and his two son inside defended the place by firing into the crowd. Evidence given at the inquest told that Sterritt was an onlooker and not involved in the looting.
On Thursday the 29th of July 1920 Patrick Thompson, aged 29, was shot dead in the village of Finea on the border of Westmeath and County Cavan. Thompson had left Mrs O’Connor’s licensed premises at about 9.55pm. As he stood talking to William Fagan Thompson saw another man he know, Thompson crossed the road to speak to the other man and as he did so shot rang out an Thompson fell to the ground. The inquest into the death of Thompson returned a verdict of murder against RIC Constable Henry Corbett who unlawfully fired the fatal shots.
On Friday the 20th of August 1920 Patrick Kennedy was shot dead by the military at Annascaul Dingle Peninsula in County Kerry. The jury at the inquest into his death returned a verdict that death was caused by a bullet wound inflicted by a British soldier without cause, provocation or justification. There were several accounts given of the shooting, some say Kennedy was returning from a funeral some say he was working in the fields saving hay. In the company of three others Kennedy was stopped by a joint Military and Police patrol in a field, shots were fired and Kennedy was hit. One of the men went for a priest while the other two returned to the farmhouse, after the three men had walked away from the scene more shots were heard and on returning the three men were told the patrol was under attack. The patrol claimed they had not shot Kennedy and the shot that hit him was fired by the attackers, the three men stated in evidence at the inquest that they saw no others only Military and Police in the area. Writing to the Cork Echo on August the 25th Major B Nestthorpe, Headquarters 6th Division said that the statement that Patrick Kennedy was shot dead by the military when returning from a funeral was untrue and it was also untrue that the military fired on a young man who had gone from a priest.
On the 22nd of September 1920 P. J. Linnane, 15 years old, was shot dead during reprisals by the British for an ambush which had taken place at Rineen County Clare. Six R.I.C. policemen died in the ambush and in a separate incident Resident Magistrate Alan Lendrum was also shot dead. Other civilians died as a result of actions taken by the British Forces and R.I.C. during the reprisals. Local farmer Sean Keane was shot and died as a result of these wounds on the 1st of October 1920. A farmer, Joseph Samon, from East-Clare who was on holiday in Ennistymon was shot dead by R.I.C. policemen while he attempted to rescue a woman from a burning house. Tom Connole, the local secretary of the Irish Transport and General Workers Union, was shot dead by R.I.C. Policemen when they surrounded his house, his hands and feet were tied and he was dragged into the street were he was shot a point-blank range in the head. While his wife watched from a neighbour’s house his house was set on fire and his body thrown into the burning building. A force of British Soldiers and R.I.C. Policemen raided the home of Dan Lehane, two of his sons had taken part in the Rineen Ambush. When Dan Lehane refused to answer their questions he was beaten before being taken to a near-by railway level crossing where he was shot in the throat, he died from his wounds the next day.
On Wednesday the 6th of November 1920 John Clifford aged 17 was shot dead be the military. Relatives of the deceased claimed he was shot before Curfew while police witnesses gave evidence at the inquest that they heard the shots five minutes after Curfew. Mrs Clifford, John Clifford’s mother, told the inquest that John was her only surviving son, her other son having been killed in France during the War.
On Wednesday the 6th of October 1920 Patrick Thompson of Finea County Westmeath was shot dead. An R.I.C. man, Herbert Corbett, was accused of his murder but at a Field General Court-martial held in The City Hall Dublin the R.I.C. man was found not guilty, the court-martial heard that Thompson was part of a large party which attempted to stop the R.I.C. man as he left a public house, Thompson was shot dead when the R.I.C. man fired on what he described as a group of about forty young men in military formation.
On Saturday the 16th of October 1920 Mr P O’Carroll was shot dead by the Military at his home in Manor Street Dublin. The city coroner was instructed by the Lord Lieutenant not to hold an inquest as an inquiry would be conducted by the Military. At a meeting of Dublin Corporation condemned the instruction from the Lord Lieutenant and tendered sympathy to Mrs O’Carroll and her family "on the murder of her husband by the armed forces of England.”
A civilian, Thomas O’Rourke (O’Rorke) was shot and mortally wounded Banba Hall, Parnell Square, Dublin on the 17th of October 192, He died from his wounds the 18th. He was walking near Banba Hall Police had received a tip off that the gunmen responsible for the killing of Sergeant Roache on Ormond Quay would be present at the concert being held in Banba Hall that evening. Thomas O’Rourke had fought at Boland’s during Easter Week, as far as we could ascertain he was not a member of the IRA at the time he was shot.
On the 20th of November 1920 Conor Clune head clerk at the Raheen Rural Industries County Clare was arrested in Dublin at Vaughans’ Hotel, the hotel was well known as an Hotel used by the I.R.A. Two other men were arrested at the Hotel on the same night, Peadar Clancy and Dick McKee. On the evening of the 21st of November the three men were shot in the guard room of Dublin Castle in retaliation for the killing of several British Army and Police intelligence men killed in Dublin that morning in what became known as Bloody Sunday. Clune was in Dublin on business related to his employment and no connection with the I.R.A.
On the 21st of October 1920 Charles Lynch was shot dead by a British Soldier in Miltown Malbay. Two soldiers from a Scottish regiment were allegedly looting using the excuse of searching for arms when they were challenged by locals who recovered some items looted from locals. One of the soldiers returned to barracks claiming he and his accomplice had been attacked and his accomplice had been murdered. A mix group of soldiers returned to the scene killing Charles Lynch as he emerged from a building on his farm.
On the 25th of October 1920 William Gleeson was shot dead at his home in Moher, County Tipperary. The armed gang described themselves as ‘Secret Servants’.
On the 28th of October 1920 Martin Counihan, a civil servant from Feakle, County Clare, was shot by 6th Battalion, East Clare Brigade, I.R.A. Counihan had been observed monitoring the movements of local I.R.A. men and reporting their activities to the R.I.C. Although shot several times he managed to stagger three miles to Bodyke before he died.
On the 13th of November 1920 an 8 year old girl was shot dead by a British Army officer as he, with another Officer, chased some young men they had challenged. Annie O’Neill was playing outside her house when the incident happened. Annie’s mother, hearing the shots, ran outside and picked up her daughter. Newspaper reports on the shooting differ as to weather Annie was dead when her mother reached her or her mother had taken her inside the house before realising she was dead. Annie was buried in Dean’s grange Cemetery.
On the 16th of November 1920 Michael (Mike) Egan was shot by R.I.C. and Auxiliaries. Egan was a caretaker at Williamstown House where three I.R.A. Volunteers were hiding when captured by the R.I.C. and Auxiliaries, Although Egan was not a member of the I.R.A. his pleas of innocence were ignored and he was executed along with the three I.R.A. Volunteers on the Killaloe Ballina Bridge County Clare.
Rev. Michael Griffin C.C., (Gurteen Galway.), A supporter of the Irish language and volunteer causes, was taken from his residence at 2 Mountpelier Tce. Galway on the night of 14 -15 November 1920 to the HQ of the Crown forces in Taylor’s Hill. His body was found on Sunday 20th. November having been buried in a boggy field at Cloghscoltia near Barna. A military inquiry held at Eglinton Police Station found that he died as a result of a gunshot wound to his head, fired feloniously, wilfully and with malice by some person or persons unknown.
On Sunday the 21st of November 1920 16 people were killed by Auxiliary Police backed up by R.I.C. at Croke Park in Dublin. The people were attending a Gaelic football match between Tipperary and Dublin.
On Monday the 22nd of November 1920 fourteen year old Michael O’Reilly of Temple Bar Dublin was shot dead between 9pm and 10pm. A number of Crown Forces had left the Exchange Hotel in Parliament Street and were jeered by a large crowd, the soldiers fired blanks at the crowd which broke into smaller groups and continued to jeer the soldiers. Michael O’Reilly was shot dead at the junction of Capel Street and Grattan Bridge, he died from a bullet wound to the head.
Martin Lyons, an ex-British Army soldier was shot dead on Thursday the 25th of November at Tunnymuck County Westmeath. No further details of the incident are available.
On the morning of the 30th of November 1920 two men were shot dead at Ardee County Louth. The two men were:
Both men were know Sinn Fein supports but did not take an active part in the organisation.
Several reports stated that the armed men who carried out the shootings were Orange Men who had compiled a list of people who they felt were Sinn Fein supports and all named on the list were to be executed. It was reported that another man was taken to Market Square and had revolvers pointed at his head, he was saved by the timely intervention of an Auxiliary Policeman.
On Wednesday the 1st of December 1920 an altercation took place at the Royal Hotel in Fermoy County Cork between a group of Auxiliaries and Nicholas Prendergast of Black Vale Hotel Fermoy. Prendergast, who was an ex-British Army officer, was accused by the Auxiliaries of being a member of the I.R.A., when Prendergast refuted the accusation he was dragged into the car park of the Hotel and severally beaten, several of his teeth were knock down his throat, he was then thrown into the river which was in full flow due to flooding at the time. Prendergast’s body was not found for a month when it was discovered at the weir at Clondulane. The inquest into Prendergast’s death found he died from asphyxia caused by violent injuries inflicted by persons belonging to His Majesty’s Forces known as the Auxiliaries.
A Military inquiry held into the death of Martin Counilian aged 53, a civil bill officer, was returning from Ballinahinch Bog with a cart load of turf accompanied by his young daughter Norah. They were held up by four masked men, at gunpoint Counilian was ordered from the cart and marched in the direction from which he had come, he young daughter followed. The girl was ordered home. At about 9.30pm the same evening Counilian arrived at a public house in Bodyke, about 4 miles from the scene of the holdup, he had received several pellet wounds to his back and a revolver bullet wound in the back with a large exit wound to his stomach. A doctor was sent for but Counilian died before the doctor arrived.
On Saturday the 4th of December 1920 Thomas Rooney was shot dead by a soldier, the military inquiry held in lieu of an inquest was told by the soldier who fired the fatal shot that he was on patrol when the officer in charge challenged a group of about 30 men. The soldier stated that the group of men stopped when challenged, Rooney attempted to leave the group and headed towards a doorway, witness covered him with his bayonet but fearing he might injure Rooney he withdrew a little, Rooney took advantage of this and attempted to run away, Rooney refused to halt when called on to do so, witness opened fire. Rooney continued to run but was later found dead. The court found that Rooney died from wounds received when fired on by a member of the military in the lawful execution of his duty and that no blame was attached to any individual.
On Tuesday the 7th of December 1920 John Fleming was shot dead while walking along Lower Road Cork. The inquest into his death was told he died from a single bullet wound.
On Wednesday the 8th of December 1920 Michael J Murphy was shot dead when leaving Saints Peter and Paul’s Church Cork. He was taken to the North Infirmary but was pronounced dead on arrival. An inquest into his death was told he died from one bullet wound about one inch to the right of the left nipple, the house surgeon reported Murphy would have died within ten minutes of receiving the wound. Murphy was employed in the telephone department of the post office and was 22 years old. Witnesses stated that Mirphy had no connections with any political organisation.
On the night of Friday William Owens was shot dead by Crown forces during a raid on a Card Playing Club in Shankill near Bray. About ten young men, including the dead man’s brother were playing cards at the club, when it was raided by British Soldiers. The men were ordered to line up against the wall and while being searched and questioned a shot was fired from outside when the door was opened. William Owens was 24 years old and employed as hardware assistant.
On the 11th of December 1920 James Lawlor, an engine driver with the G.S. and W.R. Railway, was shot dead by a British Army sentry when he failed to answer a challenge in Lismore County Waterford. Lawlor, aged 35, was a resident in the town of Lismore for about a year. He was anointed by the Rev. J. Murphy C.C. and his body taken to the Blackwater Vale Hotel which was adjacent to where he was killed.
Rev. Canon Magner PP (Dunmanway) refused to have his bell tolled on Armistice Day. He was killed by auxiliaries on 15 December 1920 having rebuked the auxiliaries for shooting a youth called Timothy Crowley. An auxiliary by the name of Harte was subsequently found guilty of the Canon’s murder but was pronounced insane at the time of the shooting.
On the 16th of December 1920 a Military Court of Inquiry in lieu of an inquest found that civilian Thomas Lyons of Lisearaey County Mayo was killed by a bullet fired by the Military in pursuit of their duty. A Military patrol called on Lyons to halt at Knappaghmore, after several calls to halt which were ignored by the deceased the Patrol opened fire killing Lyons.
On the Friday the 24th of December the body of an unknown man who had been shot dead was brought to Saint John’s Mortuary in Tralee County Kerry. The body was identified on Sunday as that of Andrew Moynihan, aged 35, of Rathmore District. Reports stated that he was found shot dead by the road side.
On Sunday the 26th of December 1920 Isabella (possibly Elizabeth) Scales, aged 22, died as a result of a bullet wound received while out walking with an Auxiliary Policeman in Limerick. While walking from Henry Street to the Docks the pair were accosted by four men who took the Policeman’s revolver, during the struggle a shot was fired hitting Miss Scales in the right breast, she was taken to Barrington’s Hospital but was dead on arrival.
On Sunday the 26th of December Patrick O’Brien, manager of a hardware shops in Clonmel, Cahir and Wexford was shot dead at a military check point at the schoolhouse near the Old Coach Road in the Glen of Aherlow County Tipperary. He was returning from a night out with his friend Denis O’Brien when the incident happened at about 11pm, the weather was stormy and it was believed the men did not hear the sentries challenge. Denis was shot in the knee and as Patrick went to his assistance he was shot in the back. Patrick was spending Christmas in the area with his brother William.
On Sunday the 26th of December at 9pm the licenced premises of Mr. Patrick McDonnell in Ballyroan County Laois were raided by Crown Forces, during a search in which pedestrians were questioned it was alleged shots were fired. At about 3am Monday morning two James Phelan, son-in-law of Patrick McDonnell who was sleeping on the premises was awoken by loud knocking on the door, on opening the door he was confronted by two masked and armed men. One of the intruders opened fire on Phelan who grappled with the gun-man and wrestled the revolver from him. Mr McDonnell arrived on the scene and intervened on behalf of his son-in-law, he was shot through the chest by one of the raiders who said ‘you are the bloke we want’. As Phelan grappled with one raider on the floor the other fired four shots into him after which the two raiders fled. Although mortally wounded Phelan managed to hold onto the revolver. Phelan lived for about seven hours. The revolver retained by Phelan was marked and numbered identifying it as an R.I.C. service revolver, two R.I.C. man were taken into custody in connection with the shooting.
On Monday the 27th of the December 1920 Timothy B Madigan, a farmer’s son, from Shanagolden Limerick was shot dead.
On Tuesday the 28th of December 1920 Michael Smyth was shot dead by Ulster Special Constabulary when he attempted to evade arrest by running away. The incident happened at Belleek County Fermanagh. Another man, Peter Mackin was shot and seriously wounded in similar circumstances later the same day, Mackin was hit in the head.
On the night of Wednesday the 29th of December 1920 Joseph Doherty aged 16 of Boleran was shot dead at a Sinn Fein dance held at Boleran School near Garvagh County Antrim when the dance was raided by police.
On Thursday the 30th of December 1920 William Slattery was shot dead by police. An official Dublin Castle report stated that Slattery, a farmer’s son aged 25, who lived at Lisobyhane, Emly, County Tipperary, was arrested by police while having dinner at his uncle’s house. While being taken to Tipperary he tried to escape at Rosborough, he was called on to halt and when he failed to do so he was shot dead.
On Friday evening a young chemist Thomas R Blake was shot dead. His home was frequently raided by Crown Forces and on the evening of his death a lorry, described by witnesses as a of a military type was seen passing the scene.
Francis O’Meara a young labourer was killed when he allegedly tried to escape from custody near Killenaule.
On the 1st of February 1921 three railway workers were shot by the Black and Tans at Mallow Railway Station Cork. County Inspector King and his wife were walking down Railway Hill towards the station when they were ambushed, Mrs King was killed. In the subsequent rampage of revenge by the Black and Tans three railway workers were shot dead, the three men were:
On the 2nd of February 1921 Justice of the Peace for Dunlavin County Wicklow. Robert Dixon was shot dead during a robbery at his home. Two R.I.C. Black and Tans, William Mitchell and Arthur Hardie, were arrested, Hardie committed suicide and Mitchell was hanged when found guilty of murder. Dixon was a well know farmer and cattle dealer.
On Saturday the 5th of February 1921 Mr. Patrick O’Toole died from double pneumonia at Ballykinlar Camp, he was 29 years old and from County Carlow. He had been some months in the camp having been arrested by the British Military at his lodgings in Brown Street, Carlow. He had no known I.R.A. activities but was a prominent supporter of the Irish language and for promoting Irish goods and industries, he was also a supporter of the Trade Union movement.
A military Court of Inquiry in lieu of an inquest held at the Meath Hospital Dublin concerning the death of William Fitzgerald aged 3 and a half years, who was killed by a fragment of a bomb thrown at a military convoy. The mother of the dead boy gave evidence that she was standing with the boy in Camden Street selling fruit, two Military lorries passed, shots were fired at the second lorry and a bomb thrown, the exploding bomb sent shrapnel flying in all directions on the crowded street, one piece of shrapnel struck her son on the head causing the fatal wound. The incident occurred on February the 5th 1921.
On the 7th of February 1921 a young woman was shot and mortally wounded by a military curfew patrol. The incident happened on Castle Street Belfast. The inquest into the woman’s death heard that a patrol of the Somerset Light Infantry saw the woman walking along the street and called on her to halt, she started to run and a shot was fired, the inquest was told that it could not be established if the shot was deliberate of accidental. The woman was hit on the right shin above the ankle and was taken to the Mater Hospital.
On the 7th of February 1921 Patrick Falsey was shot dead by the I.R.A. he was one of a group of local men filling in a trench dug by the I.R.A. to impede the British Army and R.I.C. on the road at Cooraclare County Clare. Trenching roads as it was know was a popular tactic used by the I.R.A. Although this did cause considerable incontinence to Crown forces it also caused the same incontinence to local people.
On Thursday the 9th of April at 2pm William Johnson, a 22 years old protestant labourer was shot dead in Kilbrittain, County Cork. No details of the shooting were given. His father was an ex-R.I.C. sergeant.
On Thursday the 9th of April Alfred Reilly, managing director of F H Thompson and Sons Bakers and Confectioners Cork was shot dead as he was driving home in Douglas County Cork. His body was found at the gate of his house with a note attached bearing the words ‘Beware of the I.R.A.’
On Monday the 7th of February Patrick Falvey, Kilmacduane, Kilrush, County Clare was shot dead while filling in a trench which had been dug in a road near his home. It was reported that he was shot by armed civilians and died on the morning of Wednesday the 9th of February.
At 9.30pm on Tuesday the 8th of February and ex-British Soldier, Frederick Newsom, was shot within 120 yards of the Police Barracks in Enniscorthy County Wicklow. He and a companion had just crossed the bridge and were walking along the footpath at the bottom of Slaney Street when they were approached by two men who fired two revolver shots into Newsom at point-blank range. He died at the infirmary at 5am on the 9th of February. This was the second time an attempt had been made on his life, On December 19th 1920 five shots were fired at him in market Square, he managed to escape uninjured on that occasion.
John Healy was shot dead on the 12th of February 1921 when he got caught up in the cross-fire when the I.R.A. ambushed a British Army convoy near the railway crossing at Merrion. A former member of Blackrock Council and a well known local Nationalist John Healy had no connection with the I.R.A. or the British Army and became another innocent victim of the War of Independence.
In the same incident another civilian James Brophy was lying in bed in his home at 244 Langford Terrace, Merrion Road, when he was hit by a stray bullet. He was an employee of the Dublin United Tramway Company.
Two young men were taken from their beds in their home near Bandon County Cork by masked men and shot dead. The two brothers, James Coffey aged 19 and Timothy Coffey aged 22 were awoken about 2am and removed from their home, shortly after shots were fired, the bodies were found in a neighbouring field.
At about 8.15pm Cork Fire Brigade were called to send an ambulance to Tory Top Lane on the outskirts of Cork City, on arrival they found the body of William Sullivan, he had been shot in the head. A note pinned to the body read ‘A convicted spy. Penalty death, let all spies and traitors beware.’
The Irish Times reported on the 15th of February that Mr. P Howard, an egg and poultry salesman was shot dead during a robbery by two masked men in the licensed premises of Miss Ellen Landy, Balseaddon, about two and a half miles from Balbriggan. Howard was in the premises with some local men when the raiders entered shouting hand up, Howard made a run for the back door, three shots rang out and he fell mortally wounded. He was removed to the Mater Hospital where he died after an operation.
On Tuesday the 15th of February 1921 during a planned ambush on a train at Upton Station Cork on the Cork and Bandon Railway ten people were killed. The ambushed train was the 9.30am from Cork to Bandon and was carrying about forty British Soldiers and a number of civilians.
Accounts of what happened differ, the Military stated that no civilians were allowed in carriages occupied by the Military while the I.R.A. claimed that civilians and Military were dispersed throughout the train. Intense fire was opened on the entire length of the train the moment it stopped in Upton Station, Cork. The Military Court held in lieu of an inquest found that William Donoghue and Sean Hegarty died from wounds inflicted by the Military in the lawful execution of their duty and the other victims were wilfully murdered by John Buckley alias Patrick Cockley and other persons unknown. Three I.R.A. men were killed in the ambush:
John Buckley alias Patrick Coakley (Cockley) of Kilcrea, Ballincollig, County Cork. At a Military Court held on the 22nd of March 1921 John Buckley was acquitted of the charge of levying war against the Crown by joining with certain persons unknown in an armed attack against a detachment of his Majesty’s Forces at Upton station on February 15th 1921.
On the morning of Saturday the 19th of February 1921 the body of George Tilson was found on the Fishguard Express train at Old Common Station near Acton England on the Great Western Railway. A piece of paper on the body read Shadowed from Ireland, he was taken to St. Mary’s Hospital Paddington where he died at 3.20 on Saturday afternoon. Tilson was 36 years old and from Blackrock County Cork. He was the son of the late Robert Tilson Justice of the Peace Cork and brother of Richard H Tilson Justice of the Peace Lisnalee Blackrock County Cork.
On Sunday the 20th of February 1921 farmer James Toner of Lagan near Keady died in Armagh Infirmary from gunshot wounds received on Wednesday the 2nd of February 1921 when four men, three of whom were masked, raided his home looking for arms. The four men rushed into Toner’s house shouting ‘hands up’ one raider then fired two shots into Toner.
On the morning of Sunday the 20th of February 1921 John Geoghegan was shot dead when two armed men called at his home demanding entry. Geoghegan was a 26 year old farmer and live at Moycullen County Galway. Geoghegan’s brother, who gave evidence at the military inquiry held in lieu of an inquest, stated that two men, one dressed as a policeman and the other in Khaki and wearing a tin helmet, entered the house and took his brother away. Sometime later shots were heard and on going out found his brother dead on the road.
On the 20th of February 1921 a mixed group of British Soldiers and R.I.C. policemen shot dead two brothers. Cecil and Aidan O’Donovan were searching for bird’s nests with their brother and cousin at Blackwater Mill in Clonlara County Clare. The boys were allegedly challenged by the R.I.C. and soldiers who fired on them when they failed to stop
On Friday the 18th of February 1921 Michael Walsh was taken from a ward in the Workhouse Hospital South Infirmary Cork and shot dead. Walsh was 43 years old, married and lived at Kearney’s Lane Cork. He worked as a labourer at the Ford Works. A note found attached to his body read ‘Caught at last. Spies and informers beware.’
On Monday the 28th of February 1921 Michael Heeney was shot dead while trying to escape from military custody. Heeney was from Malinbeg Glencolumcille County Donegal.
On the 28th of February 1921 Charles Daly of Lough View Terrace Cork employed by the Great Southern and Western Railway was taken by three armed and masked men from Glanmire Parcels Office, One of the masked men held up other staff on the platform, Daly was removed from the Parcels Office and taken to the tunnel, a few moments later shots rang out. The three disguised men fled. Staff were afraid to investigate until about 5am when Daly’s body was found, he had been shot through the chest, there were no bullet marks on his clothing, the raiders must have torn open his coat and shirt before firing at point blank range. At a Military Court of inquiry held in lieu of an inquest Daly’s body was identified by his uncle who stated that Daly had been employed by the Railway for three years before which he was he had served in the British Army Pay Corps for four years, his uncle also stated that Daly had no political affiliations and had no threats made against him.
On the 1st of March 1921 Thomas Cotter was shot dead by armed men who called at his home in Curraclough County Cork, a note pinned to the deceased stated Convicted Spy I.R.A.
On Tuesday the 1st of March retired R.I.C. policemen Patrick Roach of Causeway, Listowel, County Kerry was shot dead at his home. It was reported that he was riddled with bullets. He supplied the Listowel Barracks with milk. After the shooting an unsuccessful attach was mounted on Listowel R.I.C. barracks.
It was reported on the 2nd of March 1921 that considerable activity took place in Cork City last night, a man named Casey was shot dead when a bullet entered through his window inflicting serious wound from which he died later that night in hospital.
On Tuesday the 1st of March Sean O’Brien Chairman of Charleville Rural District Council was mortally wounded by two men who attacked him at his at his business premises. Two men called at his business at about 8.40pm claiming to be military, as he opened the door two shots were fired hitting him in the shoulder. He managed to slam the door after which a bomb was thrown into his premises. He died from his wounds at about 3.30am on Wednesday the 2nd of March. He was 30 years old and had been elected to the Council on the Republican ticket.
On the 3rd of March 1921 the Irish Independent reported on the death of Thomas Devaney, Pallas, Toomevara, County Tipperary. The Military had searched him and two others at his farmyard when he ran off. The Military fired on him hitting him in the back, the bullet pierced his lung. The paper also reported his brother (unnamed) had been killed in similar circumstances a shot while ago.
On Monday the 7th of March 1921 two men entered the home of the ex-Mayor of Limerick Michael O’Callaghan, Mr O’Callaghan was shot dead at the foot of the stairs. He had been elected Mayor of the City on the 30th of January 1920, he had received several death treats relating to his attendance at the funeral of the Lord Mayor of Cork MacCurtan. On the same night and shortly after the death of ex-Mayor O’Callaghan the same murder gang went to the house of the sitting Mayor of Limerick George Clancy and shot him dead. On the same night a young man named Joseph O’Donoghue was arrested by the Black and Tan, his body was found the next day in Jonesborough Avenue Limerick.
On the 13th of March 1921 Thomas Shanahan was shot dead by British Soldiers at Moyasta County Clare.
On the 14th of March 1921 three civilians were killed in cross-fire when a party of Auxiliary Police were on their way to raid an I.R.A. meeting being held in Great Brunswick Street (now Pearse Street) Dublin. The three civilians were:
On the 17th of March 1921 a Military Court of Inquiry held in lieu of an inquest at Rosslea County Tyrone heard that Samuel James Finnigan was shot dead.
On the 17th of March 1921 an ex-British Soldier Michael Duffy was shot dead went he went to the aid of James Hornhan of Carralackey County Mayo who was being robber by a group of armed men, the raiders escaped with the sum of £60.
On Sunday the 20th of March 1921 John Graham of Emly Place Belfast was shot dead when a riot developed between Unionists and Nationalists in the York Street district. Both sides threw stones and shots were fired, the police returned fire, witnesses sated that shots were fired from the Nationalist side. The inquest heard that the bullet removed from the body of Graham was not of the type used by police.
On Sunday the 21st of March Nellie Carey, aged 19, of Fermoy County Cork, died from wounds received while in the company of soldiers at a ‘Fancy Fair’ on Friday the 18th of March
On the 21s of March 1921 three people were killed when the I.R.A. attacked a train carrying British Forces at Headford Junction railway station Tralee, County Kerry, eight soldiers two I.R.A. men and three Civilians were killed, the three, all cattle dealers and from Killarney, were,
On Monday the 21st of March the body of John Sheehan from Greenane County Cork was found in a field near Knaturk County Cork. He had been missing for a month, he had been shot through the head. He had been abducted by ‘civilians’ on the 22nd of February.
Mrs Mary Lindsay and her butler James Clarke were murdered by the I.R.A. Mrs Lindsay had informed the British that the I.R.A. were to ambush a party of British Troops on the morning of January the 28th 1921 between the villages of Coachford and Dripsey County Cork. Soldier from the 1st Battalion The Manchester Regiment surrounded the I.R.A. ambush, eight I.R.A. men and two civilians were captured by the British. It became know that Mrs Lindsay had informed the British of the ambush and she and her butler were abducted on the 17th of February. Five of those captured were sentenced to death and Mrs Lindsay was forced to write to General Strickland at Victoria Barracks Cork to plead for their lives. The letter was ignored. On March the 12th the I.R.A. burnt down Leemount House, the home of Mrs Lindsay.
Martin Burk, aged 15, from Ross Cottages between Nenagh and Templemore County Tipperary, was shot dead by Crown Forces when he failed to obey an order to halt, a young lady with him narrowly avoided the same fate.
A young man, Mulcahy, was shot dead by Crown Forces at Currabeha a mile from Conna County Cork. Crown Forces raided the area and made several arrests, it was alleged Mulcahy was shot while attempting to escape. His body was taken to Fermoy Military Hospital, his sisters, unaware of their brothers fate, brought him a parcel of clothes and food only to discover he was dead when they arrived.
On the 25 of March 1921 a Military Court of inquiry held at Victoria Barracks Belfast heard evidence in relation to the murder of Michael Garvey of 1 Bray Street of Crumln Road Belfast. Several armed men entered the lodging house where Garvey was staying, they entered his room and two shots were heard. A witness stated that he saw two men leave the lodging house, one of these men were dressed as a policeman. A witness for the police stated that the description of the police uniform given did not match that which was worn by the police. The court returned a verdict of wilful murder by person or persons unknown. A bullet found on the deceased man’s pillow was described to the court as having being made by some unskilled person while the bullet that killed Garvey was described as of ordinary manufacture.
On the night of the 24th of early hours of the 25th of March 1921 School Attendance Officer Richard Leonard was shot dead at Ballybrood County Limerick. It was reported that the body of Richard Leonard would be exhumed by order of the authorities.
On the 25 of March 1921 a Military Court of inquiry held at Maryborough Cork was told of the attack on ex-soldier William Vanston in which he was shot dead. The inquiry was told that Vanstone was on his way to work at about 6.30am when he was approached by a man who fired a shot and shouted ‘you will never join the police’ after firing the shot the man made off on a bicycle. Vanston had applied to join the police but it was reported his application had disappeared in the post. A neighbour who went to Vanston’s aid complained that other neighbours refused to assist in taking the fatally injured man into his house.
On Saturday the 26th of March 1921 Annie Seville of Findlater Place Dublin was hit in the cross-fire when a British Army lorry was attacked in Sackville Street Dublin. The girl was severely wounded in the head and died on two days later.
On the 29th of March 1921 a father and son were shot dead when a group of armed men demanded access to their farm house. The incident happened at Castleblayney County Monaghan. The occupants of the house, the two men who were killed, two children and the elderly wife and mother of the dead men, were ordered out of the house, the two men were told they were going to be tried by the Irish Republican Army. When they emerged from the house both men were shot. The two men were,
On the 31st of March 1921 Mr. R. O. Lee was shot dead at his home, Mr Lee was the Clerk of Petty Sessions with the responsibility of collecting payment for dog licences, the 31st of March was the day for the expirations of Dig Licences in Ireland, it was believed the motive was to steal the Dog Licence money. Mr Lee’s father, Samuel Lee, who is blind, described how he was sitting in the kitchen with his son and a Police Constable, at 9.30pm a knock came to the door, Mr Lee’s son went to answer the door, a scuffle and shouts of hands up were heard followed by shots. Two of the raiders attempted to enter the kitchen but were driven off when the Police Constable fired his revolver at them. After the raiders had fled Mr. R. O. Lee enter the kitchen and collapsed, blood pouring from a head wound, he died shortly after.
One evening in March 1921 Charlie ‘Cha’ Reilly was travelling with two companions in a pony and trap on the Line Road North Cork when they were challenged by a party of Military. The three men abandoned the cart and fled across country on foot under a hail of bullets. Cha Reilly was mortally wounded but managed to crawl to a nearby cottage where he spent the night, the next day he was taken to his home in Newmarket where he died from his wounds a few days later.
On the 2nd of January 1921 at about 10pm two men called at the house of Bryan (Brian) Bradley, they took him away. He lived with his sister, Mrs Lynch, and her family at Currow, Carnaross, Kells, County Meath. Mr Bradley was not heard of until his sister made inquiries with the Free State Government and received a letter in January 1922 stating that he brother had been executed by the I.R.A. after being tried and found guilty of espionage. Bradley was an ex-British soldier and his estate contained bank accounts containing £102 11s and 3d in Kells post office and the Army Savings Bank. The letter also stated Bradley had been attended by a priest before he was executed. For the purposes of administrating his estate Justice Dodd granted leave to state the death took place in April 1921.
A four year old boy, John Bourke, who was wounded during an attack on Crown Forces in Upper Dorset Street Dublin on the evening of Saturday the 2nd of April 1921 died from his wounds in the Mater Hospital.
On Saturday the 2nd of April 1921 at 11.30pm Thomas Morris was taken out of his house near Kinvara County Galway by three armed and masked man and shot dead on the roadside near his house. A note was tied around the neck of the dead man, the note stated Convicted spy tried, convicted and executed by the I.R.A. Morris had served for about fourteen years with the RIC retiring on a small pension. At the outbreak of WW1 he joined the army and served with The Royal Irish Fusiliers. Upon demobilisation he returned to live with his sister in a small cottage about a mile from the village of Kinvara.
On Saturday the 2nd of April 1921 4 year old Cornelius Francis Fitzpatrick was mortally wounded in a bomb explosion in front of Rosscarbery RIC barracks following the IRA’s capture of this post on the 31st of March. He died of peritonitis at the Mercy Hospital in Cork city.
On the 5th of April 1021 a Military Court of Inquiry in lieu of an inquest was held at Ennis County Clare into the death of Patrick Connellan who was shot dead while running away from a military patrol. The court heard that the patrol was passing a church when a party of civilians ran from behind the building. The men were call upon to halt but did not do so, fire was opened by the military and they gave chase. Connellan was found wounded in the stomach, the military dressed the wound by Connellan died from his wounds. The Court found that the fatal shot was fired by a soldier in the execution of his duty.
On Wednesday the 13th of April 1921 Dungarvan County Waterford man William Moran, a shoe maker by trade, was shot dead near his home. His body was found near The Marsh at Thomas powers factory. Mr. Moran was an ex-British Army soldier.
On the 15th of April 1921 an ex-British Army Captain Patrick James O’Neill aged 51 was shot dead at his lodgings at 36 Heytesbury Street Dublin. A man called to the house claiming to have an appointment with Mr O’Neill, O’Neill asked his landlady to find out who the man was and what he wanted, and as his landlady spoke to the man at the door he drew a revolver and fired through the window of O’Neill’s room which was on the ground floor. O’Neill was hit in the chest and died soon after being admitted to hospital. O’Neill had served with Royal Fusiliers during the War.
On the 23rd of April 1921 the body of Timothy Cranloy a butcher from Saint Michael’s Street Tipperary was found on the outskirts of the town. He was about 48 years old unmarried and lived with his elderly mother at their butcher’s stall and licenced premises.
On Sunday the 24th of April 1921 two brother were shot dead at their home in 64 Clonard Gardens, Belfast. Armed men dressed in trench coats called to the house shortly after midnight
On Saturday the 30th of April 1921 Michael O’keeffe of Main Street, Carrigtwohill, County Cork was shot dead. An inquest into his death heard evidence from his wife who told the court that her husband had been woken by a knock at the door, her husband went down and opened the door, she saw or heard no more of him until his dead body was found 200 yards from his home early the following morning. A card attached to O’Keeffe sleeve when the body was found read Spies and informers beware, I.R.A. The dead man leaves one child and was in receipt of a British Army disability pension.
On Sunday the 1st of May 1921 Joseph Coughlan aged 14, Tulladuff, Liscarroll, County Cork was shot dead at 1am. His name was given in official reports as Joseph Cotter and in newspaper reports as Joseph Dennehy.
On Wednesday the 4th of May Michael Downey was shot dead as he attended the funeral of IRA Volunteer Henry Clancy. The funeral procession left Saint John’s Cathedral Limerick City and when it reached Mulgraves Street the RIC arrived, the procession containing more people than permitted, split and some of the mourners made their way to the funeral by other routes, it was as Downey and Gerald Noonan attempted to re-join the funeral procession as it reached Mount St. Lawrence Cemetery they saw some RIC men and fled across some field pursued by the RIC, ignoring shouts to halt the two men were fired on, Downey was shot dead and Noonan seriously wounded.
On Tuesday the 10th of May 1921 John McGauley Postmaster of Kilrooskey County Roscommon. The wife of the dead man told the military inquiry held in lieu of an inquest that she was taken to a neighbour’s house by the raiders, between 3am and 4am she heard several shots, as she returned to her house at about 8am she found two bodies on the road, one was her husband and the other that of a police pensioner named Martin Scanlon, both men were dead. Scanlon’s body had a label attached to his coat with the words ‘Convicted spy. Tried by the I.R.A. True to your colours to the last.
An elderly man Cornelius Looney of Boyle Street Bandon County Cork died as a result of wounds received in a shooting on the night of Saturday the 14th of May 1921.
Rev. J. O’Callaghan CC, from Clogheen Co. Cork was killed in a reprisal for an ambush on RIC members at Blackpool the previous day, and died some time after being shot by crown forces during a raid on his lodgings at Alderman Roche’s home in Cork, 15 May 1921.
On Tuesday the 17th of May at about 1pm two men were taken from their homes in Oldtown, Callan, County Kilkenny by unknown masked men and shot in a local quarry.
On the 19th of the 5th 1921 Horace McNeil Shepherd’s Bush London was shot dead when he answered the door to a group of men looking for his son-in law who was a policeman in Ireland. There was some discussion at the door during which one of the men fired a revolver killing Mr. McNeil. The inquest into Mr. McNeil’s death heard there was great difficulty in witnesses coming forward as they were frightened for their lives, only those with special police passes were allowed into the inquest and the Coroner appealed to the press not to name those involved in the inquiry.
On the 20th of May 1921 while walking with his father Edward Hawkins of 6 Bond Street Cork, aged 29 years, was shot dead at the corner of St. Francis Church. The two men were challenged to halt by two civilians, the tow civilians produced revolvers which were press into the chests of Edward Hawkins and his father and ordered the two to march to Mardyke opposite St. Joseph’s School, both men were searched and it was found that Hawkins had a Barrack Pass and British Army Discharge Papers, the tow armed civilians fired on Hawking four time each. Hawkins was fatally wounded and died before his father could summon help.
At 2am in the morning of the 20th of May 1821 Thomas McEvir a 37 year old chemist from Dunmore County Galway. McEvir was taken from his bed by three men, a witness stated at the Military Court in lieu of an inquest into the death of McEvir, told the court that the three men, one wearing motoring goggles abduct McEvir and about fifteen minutes later he heard shots. The witness stated he did not see McEvir again until 8.30am when he found his body on the roadside. A police witness gave evidence of finding McEvir’s body stating that a cardboard sign around McEvir’s neck had Convicted spy, traitors beware. Executed by the I.R.A. written on it. McEvir had several bullet wounds to the head.
Peter Graham 23 year old from Kingstown (Dun Laoghaire) employed in the Pavilion Gardens was shot by the I.R.A. on the 21st of May 1921. When his body was found a note attached to the body read:
Convicted Spy tried and found guilty by the I.R.A.
The inquest into his death reported that he died from five gunshot wounds to the head, it was also reported he was holding a sacred picture in his hands. The inquest heard that Graham had been seen earlier on the day of his death with four other men in a car which stopped at Saint Matthew’s Church of Ireland in Ballybrack which is about three miles from Dun Laoghaire. Witnesses reported hearing shots around 6.00PM, Graham’s body was later found at the bottom of the Church field.
Locally it was rumoured that the four men seen in the car with Graham were members of the local Dun Laoghaire I.R.A. The reason Graham was considered a spy was never known. Peter Graham is buried in Dean’s Grange, the inscription on his headstone reads:
Erected by Annie Graham Barrett Street Dun Laoghaire
In memory of her beloved husband Patrick
died on the 9th of May 1918 aged 56 years
Also her children
Elizabeth died 4th October 1914 aged 15
Christy lost at sea 7th February 1921 aged 23
Peter killed 21st of May 1921 aged 23
Patrick Leo died 27th April 1925 aged 21
Peter’s Brother Christopher served in the Royal Navy and was killed when the ship he was serving on sank in the Thames Estuary. The ship, H.M.P.M.S. Erin’s Isle, was engaged in mine-sweeping operations when a mine exploded. H.M.P.M.S. stands for His Majesties Paddle Minesweeper Ship.
It was suggested locally that Peter was executed because of his brothers involvement with the Royal Navy but as his brother was over two years dead this would appear to be very unlikely.
On Monday the 23rd of May 1921 several houses in Cahirciveen County Kerry were demolished in what was described as ‘official reprisals’ for attacks on Police. Several houses were destroyed using bombs which caused great destruction. Among the properties destroyed were the homes of Bartholomew Sheehan Villa Nova, Jeremiah O’Connell, Joseph Brennan and Jeremiah O’Riordan of Main Street. During the orgy of destruction Stephen Dorman had his leg blown off and an armed shattered, he was taken to hospital where he died the next day.
On Tuesday the 24th of May 1921 at about 2am Patrick Briordy (Briody), a shoemaker, was shot dead outside his home at Mullahone about 10 miles from Cavan. At about 12.45am 30 men took Broady from his home and shot him about six hundred yards from his home, he had seventeen bullet wounds in his body, a note attached to his dead body read ‘Spies and informers beware, I.R.A.’ Broady leaves a wife and family.
Three civilian were killed during the attack on the Customs House on Wednesday the 25th of May 1921 , the three were:
Mahon J lawless a temporary clerk in the Customs House was killed, he was going along a passage inside the building with another official W Grace when they were both hit by bullets fired at the building from outside. The father of Mahon Lawless was an Excise Officer in London. Mahon Lawlor was also the nephew of Frank Lawless Sinn Fein TD for Dublin North. Mahon Lawless had joined the British Army at the age of 18 under the Derby Scheme and had served for three and a half years, he moved to Ireland after demobilisation
F Davis, Customs House Caretaker, aged 63, it was believed he did not hear an order to put his hands up and was shot dead by one of the raiders.
James Connolly worked as a labourer on the quays and lived at Gardiner Street Dublin. He was shot at the entrance to Gardiner Street and Beresford Place. He had served for a time in the British Army. He was married with five children, the eldest was eleven years old.
On Sunday the 29th of May 1921 J Millar was fatally wounded in an ambush in St. Stephen’s Green, he died later in hospital.
Paddy Smyth was employed as a grocer’s assistant in Dublin’s City Centre. In the evening of the 29th of May 1921 he was standing outside the shop he worked in when a passing lorry full of Black and Tans fired a shot at him. Mortally wounded in the chest he was taken to Jervis Street Hospital where he died soon after admission to the hospital. The headstone, which his mother had erected on his grave, states that he was shot by the Black and Tans, the inscription reads:
Erectedby his motherin loving memory of
Michael J Smyth (Paddy) Donnybrook
who was shot by Black and Tans
at 17 Anglesea St. Dublin
29th May 1921 aged 19 ½ years.
On the 25th of May 1921 John Doyle aged 33 of Amiens Street Dublin was admitted to the Mater Hospital suffering from gunshot wounds, he died as a result of the wounds on the 30th of May.
On Wednesday the 1st of June 1921 Blacksmith Patrick Coyle of Bredagh Kiltoom County Roscommon was shot dead by the R.I.C. when he was seen running from the house of William Murphy in Carnagh. Police called on Coyle to stop and opened fire when he failed to do so. It was reported that Coyle had no connection with politics.
On Saturday the 4th of June 1921 two men were shot dead on the Sea Road Clontarf County Dublin. One of the men, Thomas Halpin was an ex-British Army soldier and had joined the army in 1916 and served for sixteen months, he had been recommended for promotion before being invalided out of the army, he had two brothers who also served in the War, one of them was killed in action. Halpin was due to go to America the day he was shot, he was 21 years old and unmarried. The other man was John Ellard Brady was 21 years old and the son of Mr James Brady, Solicitor of 21 Hollybrook Road Clontarf.
On the 4th of June 1921 a car driven by Crown Forces was crossing the Newcomen Bridge over the Royal Canal Dublin, three bombs were thrown at the car, the bombs bounced off the side of the car and exploded, several people were injured in the explosions.
A 12 year old boy, Andrew Hanratty, of 13 Moy Elta Road was hit by splinters in the head and leg, he was taken to hospital unconscious where he died ten minutes after admission. Ten other people were injured including two D.M.P. Constables.
On Saturday the 4th of June 1921 H O’Rourke, labourer of Cornmarket, was shot dead in Little Mary Street Dublin.
05/06/1921On Sunday the 5th of June 1921 between nine and ten o’clock Alick Connor of Limavady County Derry was shot dead at Ballintemple.
08/06/1921On the 8th of June 1921 two civilians died as a result of wounds received from bomb fragments, the bombs exploded when thrown at Crown Forces in Brunswick Street Dublin City. As a party of RIC were travelling by lorry through Brunswick Street they were attacked by revolver fire and bombs, four bombs exploded outside the lorry and one inside. The RIC had no bombs in their possession. Two civilians were admitted to hospital suffering from wounds, they were.
On the 4th of June 1921 the Irish Independent Newspaper reported that Edward Doherty was shot dead by Crown Forces after a search of the area around Ballybofey County Donegal was conducted after the attempted ambush of a party of Crown Forces returning by car from a fishing trip. I.R.A. Volunteer James McCarron was shot dead when the party of Crown Forces returned fire on their ambushers. In the follow up search by Crown Forces they called at the home of James Doherty at Correfin about a mile from the scene of the ambush, Crown Forces were informed by James Doherty that his son Edward, a watch maker, was working in a room off the kitchen, after being questioned by Crown Forces it was stated that Edward Doherty ran from the house and was fired on as he ran. He was stated locally that Edward Doherty was not involved in politics.
It was reported that Patrick Creamer, an ex-Canadian soldier died in Barrington’s Hospital from gunshot wounds received when he failed to stop when challenged by Crown Forces at Rhebogue Limerick on the 22nd of May 1921.
At about 12.15pm on Great Brunswick Street Dublin an R.I.C. patrol was attacked by a large group of armed men. Bombs were thrown and shots fired. A civilian, Charles Mullins, aged 60, of Sandwith Street died as a result of a bullet wound to the stomach. Six civilians and five Policeman were injured.
Members of the 6th Battalion, Kerry North Brigade IRA kidnap James Kane Fishery Inspector, an ex-R.I.C. Sergeant, at Shanacool Bridge. His body is found four days later. The IRA believe he gave information leading to the arrest of eight men for the killing of DI Tobias O'Sullivan on the 20th January in Listowel. They say they found evidence of Kane's informing on RIC Divisional Commander Holmes when they captured him after the ambush at Toureengarriv on the 28th January. Brothers Martin and Denis Quille, Timothy O'Carroll, Daniel Enright, Connie Brosnan, Daniel Grady, Brian Grady, Patrick O'Donnell and Thomas Pelican were named as the members of the firing party who shot Kane.
On June the 12th 1921 Dean of Leighlin County Carlow John Finlay died after a raid on his home at Brackley. Finlay’s house was about to be taken over by the Black and Tans to be used as a Barrack, the I.R.A. attempted to burn the house to the ground. Finlay was aged 78. It is stated from several sources that the death of Finlay was an accident, he died when one of the raiders accidentally discharged his rifle.
On Sunday June 12th Joseph Miller was taken from his home at 2 Dock Lane Belfast and shot dead. His wife gave evidence that there was rioting in the streets at the time, at 10.15 they were getting ready for bed when four Special Constable burst into the room, they did not speak, on Special Constable dragged her husband out of the room, the next time she saw her husband was when she identified her husbands dead body on the 14th.
Miller was 25 years old and employed as a dock labourer. It was claimed at the inquest that Miller had attempted to escape Police custody and was shot while trying to do so.
On Thursday the 16th of June at about 8pm eight armed and masked men raided the home of Mrs. Anne Dunne aged 70 of Grangehiggin about six miles from Kildare. Her son Philip was dragged from the house and shot his body being riddled with bullets. Mrs. Dunne was shot twice and was in a serious condition.
At 3pm on Friday the 17th of June the R.I.C. found the body of Patrick Darcy, a school teacher from Doonbeg County Clare, he had disappeared from his home at Cooraclare the previous night. A label attached to the body read ‘Sooner or later we get them. Spy, tried, convicted and executed by the I.R.A.,’.
On the 17th of June at about 11pm an ex-British Army soldier named Reilly was dragged from his bed at Cloghan, Birr, County Offaly and shot dead by a number of armed men.
At about 2am an ex-British Army soldier named Cunningham was taken from his home and shot by armed man. He was employed as a carpenter at Mr. Perry’s Mills Belmont County Offaly.
Between 2am and 3am of the morning of the 18th of June 1921 two brothers were taken from their beds, put up against the wall and shot. Armed men all dressed on trench coats arrived at the licensed premises of Mrs. Walters, widow of the late John Walters U.D.C. who resided with her three sons and two daughters at Seatown Place Dundalk. The two young men were removed from the premises at gun-point:
On Monday the 20th of June 1921 farmer John Lysight a protestant from Cashel District County Tipperary died in a Dublin hospital from gunshot wounds he received on the 7th of March 1921.
On Thursday the 23rd of June 1921 Josephine Scannell died when hit by a stray bullet as she worked on a sewing machine in her home on French’s Quay in Cork city. She was working at the window when the bullet hit her. She is buried in Saint Joseph’s Cemetery.
Train guard Francis (Frank) Gallagher was killed when a bomb exploded on the track of the Great Northern Railway near Adavoyle about ten miles north of Dundalk. The train was carrying British Troops and three were killed in the incident.
On the 24th of June 1921 six year old Patrick Morrissey was shot dead when two I.R.A. Volunteers attempted to disarm two Black and Tans at Duggan’s Shoe Shop in Ennis County Clare. The I.R.A. Volunteers failed to disarm the Black and Tans and were chased through the streets of Ennis until they were cornered and captured. Young Patrick Morrissey died in the cross-fire, the two IRA men were shot and wounded during the pursuit they were Francis Kane and his cousin Patrick O’Keeffe.
On Sunday the 26th of June Mary Parnell, a widow, aged 30 who lived at Kyrl’s Quay, Cork, was shot dead when a prisoner was being removed from the Bridewell attempted to escape. The prisoner ran into a public house on Kyle Street. An R.I.C. policeman, who was escorting the prisoner, fired at him just as he entered the public house, when the policeman approached the public house he found Mary Parnell had been shot in the head. The inquest found Mary Parnell was shot by Crown Forces in the execution of their duty. The Irish Times reported on the 28th of June 1921 that while John Twomey of North Main Street Cork was being removed from Cork Bridewell to the Military Barracks he attempted to escape, shots were fired as he fled and he was recaptured but Mrs Parnell, aged 30, was shot dead when hit by a bullet fired at Twomey.
On Wednesday the 29th of June 1921 John Buckley, aged 20, employed as a labourer, was taken from his home in Gurthdrum, County Tipperary at 2am and shot dead in the yard outside. He was recently married and some months before he was killed he was arrested in connection with political matters.
On Wednesday the 29th of June the bodies of two men were found on the roadside at Coolasmuthane, Charleville, County Cork. Both were blindfolded and had been shot through the head and both had a label ‘Convicted spy, beware I.R.A.’ tier round their neck. The two men were:
On Wednesday the 29th of June Hugh Newman, an ex-soldier, aged 39, was shot dead on his farm at Lisdeegan, County Cavan, he was taken from the farm house where he lived with his wife by a number of men at 4am, his body was found in a field with a note ‘Tried, Convicted spy, I.R.A, He was found blindfolded with his hands tied behind his back, he had been shot eight times.
11/07/1921 Although the Anglo Irish treaty was not signed until the 6th of December 1921 a Cease-Fire between the British and I.R.A. was agreed and came into effect on the 11th of July 1921.
An inquest was held on the 9th of August 1921 into the deaths of 14 people killed in rioting and other incidents in Belfast in July 1920.
A verdict of death by misadventure was returned on E Robinson, an ex-navy man who was shot in is house. Mr Robinson’s son gave evidence that his father, who was an old man, on hearing a commotion, got up to look out the window. Shots were fired at the window fired at the window hitting Mr Robinson, his son alleged the shots were fired by police.
A verdict of willful murder by persons unknown was returned in the case of W. J. Baxter, aged 12, shot on his way to Sunday School.
A verdict of willful murder by persons unknown was returned in the case of J. Ledlie, aged 19, who was shot on Norfolk Street while helping a friend save his furniture.
Shot during a riot was the verdict returned on W. Tierney, aged 56, who was killed in a house in Osman Street subsequent to an attack on a lorry containing Special Constabulary.
The death of Maggie McKinney, aged 26, a mill worker from Balkan Street occurred as a result of wounds sustained in the yard. No Shots were heard. The jury returned a verdict that deceased was shot by some person unknown.
A verdict of accidental death was returned in the case of P Markey aged 49, a cabinet maker from Ross Street who fell from a wall while trying to escape from a dangerous area.
Verdicts of death from gunshot wounds caused by bullets fired by persons unknown, during a riot, were returned on the following:
On Saturday the 2nd of July 1921 Kathleen Kelleher of Muckross Parade of the North Circular Road Dublin was shot dead. Miss Keller, 17 years old, left home at 3pm to go for a walk in the Phoenix Park. The circumstance of her death are vague but on Sunday morning a Constable from the Dublin Metropolitan Police called at the Keller home to inform the next of kin that their daughters body was at Steevens Hospital, she died from bullet wounds to the temple.
On Sunday the 3rd of July 1921 Joseph Murray of Omerbane County Antrim was shot dead when he failed to stop when ordered to do so by Crown Forces. Shots were fired over his head but when this failed to stop him he was shot.
On Sunday the 3rd of July 1921 Richard Cusack was shot dead in Ballycotton County Cork. It was reported that a party of military entered the village and shots were heard. Cusack, who was in a field near his house received a bullet wound in the stomach and died shortly afterwards, it was reported he was an ex-naval man.
On the 7th of July 1921 retired RIC Sergeant Anthony Foody aged 48 was shot dead at Carrralavin County Mayo between Ballina and Balliconlon. The I.R.A. blamed Foody for the deaths of two of its members and a notice around Foody’s neck read Revenge for Dwyer and Ragg. Foody had recently purchased a farm near Bonniconlon County Mayo. He was attached to the County Roscommon force but had served some time in County Tipperary and was stationed at The Ragg when the Dwyer brothers were killed.
On the 11th of July 1921 a Military Court of Inquiry held in lieu of an Inquest into the death of John Rossiter aged 57 employ as a groom by Mr. Parkinson heard that the dead man had been travelling by train between Kingsbridge terminus and Clondalking Station when a bomb was thrown at the train. The bomb had been thrown from Ballyfermot Bridge County Dublin. Mr. Rossiter’s leg was severed and he was removed to hospital but died soon after an operation was preformed on him.
On Thursday the 12th of July 1921 the Freemans Journal reported the Justice of the Peace Major G B O’Connor, aged 70, was taken from his home near Cork and shot dead. He was identified with the Dominion Home Rule League, he had recently signed an affidavit on behalf of a prisoner under sentence of death by a military court.
On the 31st of August while travelling to work Leopold Leonard was shot by a sniper. A policeman at the Inquest reported that snipers had been in operation against car travelling down Peter’s Hill Belfast. Mr Leonard, who was married, was hit by a bullet and died a week later in hospital.
On September the 25 1921 an ex-soldier named George Berry aged 26 died as a result of injuries received when a bomb was thrown in Milewater Street Belfast. The dead man was from Shore Street Belfast.
On Wednesday the 25th of October 1921 Maurice Christopher Aherne aged 24 was shot dead while returning to Monard Whitechurch from Cork. The assassin escaped on a bicycle, although Aherne was well locally as a member of the I.R.A. the motive for the killing was robbery the inquest finding there was no political motive. Daniel J Healy, Coolowen, who was with Aherne when the robbery took place gave evidence at the inquest and told Aherne had purchased some milk from him, a sum of £2 and 3s was found on Aherne but his watch was missing.
On the night of Sunday the 16th of October 1921 Bernard Mailey, Civil Bill Officer, Raphoe County Donegal, was abducted as he left Raphoe Catholic Church. Witnesses said he put up a brave struggle but was eventually overpowered and bundled into a motorcar. On Tuesday the 18th Coroner for East Donegal, Mr Edward Gallagher, J.P., received a telegram purporting to be from Commanding Officer I.R.A. asking him to arrange an inquest on the body of Mr Mailey, the I.R.A. claimed they had found Mr Mailey’s body on the roadside. The I.R.A. claimed they had conducted an inquiry into the death and Mr Miley had died of heart failure. Mr Mailey’s body was found in a coffin on the roadside at Meenagory near Raphoe.
On the night of Saturday the 15th of October 1921 the body of Hugh Crymble aged 27 and employed as a fitter was discovered at Sand Quay Belfast. He had been shot in the chest and thigh.
On Tuesday the 8th of October 1921 Alderman Tadhg Barry of Cork was shot dead while being interned in Ballykinlar Interment Camp. Barry was watching released men boarding military lorries when a shot was fired and Barry fell mortally wounded.