Connaught Rangers Mutiny in India 1920
The Connaught Rangers mutinied because of the atrocities committed by the Black and Tans in Ireland. There are plenty of good websites and books detailing the circumstances of the mutiny so I will not go into the details of the event.
Only one soldier was executed. Private James Joseph Daly, 22 years old, of the 1st Battalion The Connaught Rangers, regimental number 35025 and he was a native of Tyrrellspass County Westmeath Ireland.
The execution was ordered, after court-martial by Major-General Sir G. de S. Barrow, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., of Northern Command of the British Army in India. The execution took place at 6am on the morning of 2nd of November 1920.
The Dail (Irish Parliament) passed the Connaught Rangers (Pensions) Act in 1936. It provided for the payment of pensions, allowances, and gratuities to or in respect of certain former members of the 1st Battalion, the Connaught Rangers. The effect was to give the Mutineers parity of esteem with veterans of the Irish War of Independence.
The mutiny began on the 28th of June 1920 when 5 men of C Company 1st Battalion The Connaught Rangers refused to obey orders. The Union Flag at Jullundur on the North-West Frontier was replaced with the Irish tricolour. The mutiny was over within three days and the mutineers imprisoned at Dagshai. Rumours spread through the Connaught Rangers detachment stationed at Solan. 70 Connaught Rangers, lead by James Daly, attacked the armoury and two soldiers were killed. The two soldiers killed were :
A Court of Enquiry into the deaths of Private Sears and Private Smyth was held on the 18th of July 1920.
Proceeding of a Court of Enquiry.
Assembled at Salon on the 18th of July 1920, by order of Major W.N.S. Alexander, D.S.O., for the purpose of investigating and reporting the death of No. 10079 Private Patrick Smythe and No. 32781 Private Peter Sears 1st battalion The Connaught Rangers.
Lieut. W. J, O’Brien M.C. 1st Bn. Connaught Rangers.
Lieut. H.G. Carrigan, 1st Suffolk Regiment.
Lieut. P. Sarsfield 1st Bn. Connaught Rangers.
Lieut. E. O. Johnson I.M.D.
The court having assembled pursuant to order, proceed to take evidence:
Lieut. C. J. Walsh, 1st Bn. The Connaught Rangers states: At Salon on the 1st of July 1920, I was officer I/C of an armed guard mounted on the magazine. At about 2200 hours, four mutineers approached the magazine and tried to rush the Sentry. I covered the leader with me revolver. I cautioned these men and warned then that if they approached any nearer I would shoot them. They went immediately in the direction of their bungalow. About five minutes later an attack was made on the magazine by a number of mutineers armed with naked bayonets. By this time the sentries on the magazine were reinforced by the remainder of the Guard, and all Officers living in the line. The mutineers pressed on toward the magazine, they were challenged at least three or four times, they took no notice of the challenge, and, as a further warning I fired two shots from my revolver into the air. This had no effect, so I fired into the attackers who then withdrew. Shortly afterwards three men were removed on stretchers to the station Hospital, two of whom I heard were dead, and one wounded.
(SGD) C. J. WALSH, Lieut.,
1st Battan, The Connaught Rangers.
Lieut. D. T. McWeeney, M.C., 1st bn. Connaught Rangers states: At Salon on the 1st of July 1920, at about 22-00 hours, I was sitting in the veranda of the Officers’ mess. I heard a whistle blown, which I knew to be the alarm signal, from the direction of the magazine. I immediately ran to the magazine followed by the Guard, where I met Lieut. Walsh, who told me that four mutineers had tried to rush the Sentry, and, on being cautioned by him, withdrew. I then took up a position close to Lieut. Walsh, and on the South side from the men’s’ bungalows. A few minutes after, an attack was made on the Magazine by the Mutineers armed with naked bayonets. The attackers were challenged at least three or four times, but refused to stop. As a further warning, I fired two revolver shots into the air, but the attackers took no notice but came on. I then fired into the attackers, who, thereupon, withdrew. I shortly afterwards saw three men being carried on stretchers to the station Hospital, two of whom, I heard, were dead and one wounded.
(SD) D.T. McWeeney, Lieut.
1st Bn. The Connaught Rangers.
Statement by Lieut. E.O. Johnson I.M.D.
On the 1st of July 1920, about 22-00 hours, I was called down to the Magazine and saw Private Egan who was wounded in the right breast. I also saw the dead body of Private Smythe with a gunshot wound in the forehead and the dead body of Private Sears with a gunshot wound in the right occipital region. In my opinion both these men died from gunshot wounds and that death was instantaneous. I had them removed to the Station Hospital, Solon.
(SD) E.O. Johnson, Lieut. I.M.D.
W.J. O’Brien, Lieut.
1st The Connaught Rangers.
President Court of Inquest.
ARMY FORM B. 115.
Record of the declaration of the Court of Inquest assembled at Solon, on the 10th day of July 1920, for the purpose of investigating and recording the deaths of Nos. 10079, Pte. Smythe, and 32781, Pte. Sears, the 1st Battalion, The Connaught Rangers.
The Court declare that :-
The above mentioned soldiers died from gunshot wounds (vide the Medical Officer’s written report attached) inflicted by the defenders of the Magazine on the 1st of July 1920, about 22-00 hours. The Court further declare that the shooting of the above mentioned soldiers was justifiable on account of their mutinous behaviour in attacking the Magazine with naked bayonets and in refusing to halt when challenged.
Name of President and Members.
W.J. O’BRIEN, Lt., 1st, The Connaught Rangers, President.
H.C. CARRIGAN, Lt. 1st Suffolk Regt.
Ptk. Sarsfield, Lt. 1st Connaught Rangers.
I would like to thank John Doyle for, A: pointing out the difference in regimental numbers which may have caused confusion for anyone using the site for research and B: for his kind assistance in providing MIC details. I will try to update the list with any information as I get it, if you do have any more information relating to the regimental numbers please let me know, if possible please include a reference to where the information came from.
Ranks are abbreviated to:
Buckley John Joseph (Connaught Rangers Numbers 6723 and 35254 Machine Gun Corps Number 162451). Born on the 28th of August 1899 died on the 17th of November 1966, he was a native of Claremorris County Mayo. Enlisted in the Machine Gun Corps at Ballinrobe County Mayo in on the 5th of March 1917, he re-enlisted in the Connaught Rangers on the 17th of July 1919 and was discharged with Ignominy on the 18th of March 1921. He is described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 8 inches, of fresh complexion with grey eyes and brown hair. He was sentenced to penal servitude for life and on return to the U.K. served his sentence in Maidstone and Portland Prisons he was released in January 1923.
Burland William. Connaught Rangers 696 and 35084 Private. Born on the 21st of January 1890. Following the mutiny at Solon, and court martial, he was sentenced to 5 years imprisonment. He served 1 year and 8 months of this sentence Dagshai in India and Portland, Maidstone Prisons, England. He enlisted at Liverpool on the 7th of September 1914 with the 5th Battalion Connaught Rangers being discharges on the 25th of January 1919, he re-enlisted with the 1st battalion Connaught Rangers on the 26th of January 1919 at Natoye Belgium. He was discharged with Ignominy on the 24th of January 1921. He is described in his discharge papers as 5 foot ten and a half inches of fair complexion with blue eyes and reddish hair. He served in the Irish Defence forces, service number 60802 Private, at the Military College, Pearse Barracks, Curragh Camp, Kildare. He was killed in a motor accident in 1947.
Cherry Patrick William. Born on the 14th of February 1896 died on the 6th of April 1965. Wiltshire Regiment 21970 Private, Somerset Light Infantry 29714 Private and Connaught Rangers 35250 Private. Enlisted at Guernsey on the 4th of August 1915. While stationed in India, he took part in the mutiny and was subsequently court-martialled and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment commuted to 10 years and discharged with Ignominy. He served 2 years and a half of this sentence in Portland and Maidstone Prisons, England and was released on the 4th of January 1923. Describer in his discharge papers as five foot one and a quarter inches tall, fresh complexion with brown eyes and red hair.
Conan Willie (William Coman) 7614 (35092), Sentenced to 15 years.
Conlon Boy Martin, aged 19. Sentenced to 10 years. Born in Boyle County Roscommon and joined the British Army in Boyle giving his age as 15 years old on enlistment. In his discharge papers he was described as 5 foot 2 inches tall of fresh complexion grey eyes and light brown hair. He was officially discharged from the British Army with Ignominy at Cork on the 20th of January 1921. His rank and number given on the discharge papers are Driver 7143650. In his application for compensation as an ex-member of the Connaught Rangers who participated in the mutiny in India in 1920 paid by the Irish government he states his rank as Private, British army number 11353. He was born on the 1st of November 1902. Enlisted in November 1917 in the 1st Battalion Connaught Rangers. He served 2 years and 7 months in Portland and Maidstone Prisons. He was released on 4 January 1923. The Irish government awarded him a post-1918 short service pension at the rate of 10 shillings and 6 pence per week, under the terms of Section 3 of the Connaught Rangers (Pensions) Act, 1936, Service dates: 7 November 1917 to 4 January 1923. He joined the Irish Defence Forces and served until 1930.
Connell Simon used the name James Connell, Connaught Rangers. He enlisted underage using his brother’s name James, his army number is given as 35109. He was born on the 3rd of November 1900 and enlisted on the 3rd of June 1915. He was sentenced to death commuted to 10 years for his part in the Mutiny. He was imprisoned from the 1st of July being released in February 1923, he was detained at Portland and Maidstone Prisons. On his return to Ireland he served with the Free State Army. His brother James also served in the Free State Army.
Coote William John Connaught Rangers 8926 Private. Born in 1890 died on the 14th of February 1973. Enlisted at Brunswick Street on 8 October 1906 and served nearly 15 years in the British Army. He took part in the mutiny in Jullundur, India, he was sentenced to 1 year hard labour and discharged with Ignominy. He was discharged 16 September 1921. He served 1 year hard labour in Sialkot, India he was released on 23 August 1921.
Daly James 35232/RIR 6314 (35185)
Davis James AKA Francis Owen. There are several dates given in the records for his year of birth, he died on the 16th of November 1948 aged 65 years old. He enlisted in 1898 in the British Navy until 1901, re-enlisted in the Royal Munster Fusiliers, transferred to the Connaught Rangers serving a total of over 19 years in the British Armed Forces. He was sent to India where he took part in the mutiny in 1920. He was court-martialled, sentenced to 2 years hard labour and sent to Woking Prison, from which he escaped 12 months later. Following his return to Ireland, he joined the IRA 2nd Northern Division in County Tyrone and served as a Brigade Training Officer. He was captured by the RIC within 3 weeks in the Sperrin Mountains, sentenced to 5 years and sent to Peterhead Prison, in Scotland. Back in Ireland, he worked for a while (1927) in the canteen of McKee Barracks, then as a builder's labourer in the Four Courts. Described in his discharge papers as 5 foot four and a half inches tall, fresh complexion with grey eyes and fair hair.
Delaney Valentine aged 23 Sentenced to death commuted to life. A native of Logboy County Mayo, 1st Battalion Connaught Rangers, emigrated to the U.S. where he lived in New York. He was sentenced to death and when his death sentence was commuted to penal servitude he held on to the warrant issued to him informing him he was to be executed, he sewed it into a brown scapular he wore around his neck. While serving his sentence in Maidstone Prison he and some comrades went on hunger strike for 11 days. Their Chaplin prevailed on them to abandon the strike after they had been handcuffed and force fed liquid egg.
James Joseph Devers Pictured far left sitting on the ground. Described on the charge sheet as wearing a Sinn Fein Badge during the mutiny.
Devers James Joseph Connaught Ranger 32328 Private. Born on the 20th of December 1899 died on the 26th of September 1958 aged 59 years. He enlisted at Ballina County Mayo on the 14th of February 1918 in the 2nd Battalion Connaught Rangers and transferred to the 1st Battalion Connaught Rangers on the 1st of June 1919 was court-martialled and sentenced to life imprisonment, commuted to 21 years. He was imprisoned in Dagshai, Portland, Maidstone and Parkhurst prisons and served 2 years and 7 months being released on the 5th of January 1923.
Below is part of a statement submitted by James Devers in relation to his treatment while in detention after being found guilty of mutiny. The statement was made as part of a disability claim to the Irish Government under the Connaught Rangers compensation scheme.
After the mutiny the mutineers were taken to Lucknow and kept there about a month or six weeks. Then we were brought up to Dagshai and some of us were put in wooden huts and the others into the condemned prison. I was first in a wooden hut and after being tried I was removed to condemned prison. The treatment in Lucknow was alright but we were treated very badly in Dagshai, the food was very bad and the prison was very damp, the walls were all wet. I was ill-treated by warder, knocked and kicked and thrown into cell and put on bread and water for three days when I went on hunger strike. I was sentenced to twenty-one years. The conditions remained bad all the time and I was kept there until November when we were brought to Bombay and put on the boat for England. On the journey to England we refused to do exercise and we were kept locked up for a few days. Nothing more happened on the journey until we landed in Portland in January 1921. We were kept about a month in Portland prison when we removed to Maidstone prison. One of our men was ill-treated and we went on strike and we were put on 15 days bread and water, 28 days Skilly (a thin porridge) diet, 28 days No. diet and 3 months solitary confinement. We went through that punishment twice. We were over a week on hunger strike when the punishment was first imposed on us. I was taken out of cell and brought to hospital suffering from pains all over my body. I was in the hospital for about a fortnight and then removed to convalescent hospital, Parkhurst, Isle of White. I was there until I was released in January 1923.
Devine Thomas 10370 Discharge number 7144183 (32768) aged 27. Sentenced to death commuted to life. Born in 1892. His application to the Irish government for a pension states that in 1937 Devine was in Spain with General O’Duffy’s Brigade. Enlisted In the British Army on the 2nd of February 1912 at the Curragh County Kildare. He served for 3 years 164 days and was discharged on the 15th of July 1915 physically unfit for war service, listed as having received 1914 Star medal. Re-enlisted in the Connaught Rangers on the 17th of October 1919.
The Irish Times
On the 7th of December 1964 the Irish Times carried a report relating to the refusal of the Irish Minister of Defence to allow a firing-party to render honours at the funeral of Thomas Devine, Harbour Road Longford. A resolution was passed protesting at the refusal at a meeting of the County Longford Committee of Agriculture. Mr . M. Farrell who proposed the motion stated “Mr. Devine was a member of the Connaught Rangers who mutinied in India in 1920 as a protest against British atrocities in Ireland. He was sentenced to death but the sentence was commuted to imprisonment and he was released at the end of hostilities.” Mr Farrell went on to say “Mr Devine was wearing a British uniform but an Irish heart beat behind it.”
Dyer Patrick. Connaught Ranger 7143531 Private and 11056 Lance Corporal. Born in 1895. Enlisted at Boyle County Roscommon on the 15th of January 1915 discharged with Ignominy on the 18th of March 1921.He took part in the mutiny at Jullundur, was court-martialled and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment. He was detained in Portland and Maidstone, England and released in March 1922. He was described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 6 inches of fresh complexion with grey eyes and black hair. He died on the 11th of January 1976.
Egan Eugene 6141/7143904 (32386) Born 1897 and died on the 7th of October 1975. Enlisted in November 1915 and was transferred to the Connaught Rangers in 1919 (Army Order 155/1919). In 1920, he took part in the mutiny in Solon, India, was court-martialled and sentenced to death, sentence was commuted to penal servitude for life. He was imprisoned in Dagshai India and Portland and Maidstone England He was released on 4 January 1923. He joined the Irish National Army in February 1923, joined the Reserve in 1928 and was discharged in 1933. He received a gunshot wound to the right chest during the attack on the Magazine at Solon.
Fallon James. Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers 48563 Private, 1st Connaught Rangers 9731, 32352 and 4143846 Private. Born in 1891 died on the 29th of November 1949.He enlisted in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers at Drogheda on the 2nd of August 1909 and was discharged on the 13th of March 1919 having served nine years and 224 days. He re-enlisted with the Connaught Rangers on the 7th of July 1919 at Drogheda and after being found guilty of taking part in the Mutiny he was discharged with Ignominy on the 22nd of March 1921. He was sentenced to 2 years imprisonment. He is described in his discharge papers as five foot five and a half inches, fresh complexion with light blue eyes and black hair.
Flannery John LC P 9380 (7143167) B Company 1st Battalion Connaught Rangers. Enlisted on 21 July 1908 in Warwick and served for 12 years. He was given a death sentence which was subsequently commuted to penal servitude for life. He was imprisoned in Parkhurst (Isle of Wight), Portland and Wandsworth Prisons (England) for 2 years and 4 months. He was released on 6thJanuary 1923. He received grants from the White Cross of £40 in 1923 and £50 in 1924. He has two descriptions in his discharge papers as 5 foot 6 inches tall, fair complexion blue (Grey) eyes and fair (Brown) hair with clasped hands and true love tattooed on left forearm.
Gallagher John. LC Munster Fusiliers 14081 (35195)
Gleeson John Joseph. Royal Irish Regiment 5102 Private, 1st Battalion Connaught Rangers 35185 and 7144355 Private. Born on the 3rd of March 1896. He enlisted in August 1915 at Tipperary with the 2nd Battalion Royal Irish Regiment, he was wounded in France in 1916. He was then transferred to the Munster Fusiliers in 1917 and served in Italy. In February 1919 he was transferred to the Connaught Rangers. He was court-martialled and sentenced to death the sentence was commuted to penal servitude for life. He was described in his discharge papers as 5 foot three and a half inches, of fresh complexion with brown eyes and dark brown hair and had tattoo marks on his right forearm. He was released from Bradford Jail on the 9th of January 1923.
Gogarty Patrick Joseph. aged 20. Sentenced to death commuted to life. A native of Kiltoom County Roscommon, joined the Irish Army where he served in Custume Barracks Athlone for over 20 years. He retired from the Irish Army in 1962.
Gorman James. Connaught Rangers 5785, 32424, and 7143936 Private. Born in 1896 a native of Tubbercurry County Sligo died on the 21 of December 1977. First enlisted on the 3rd of August 1915 at Boyle County Roscommon, he was discharged on the 3rd of February 1919 and re-enlisted with the Connaught Rangers on the 15th of August 1919 at Sligo. Sentenced to 7 years imprisonment, commuted to 5 years and discharged with Ignominy. Described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 3 inches with fresh complexion grey eyes and fair hair with a gunshot wound scar on the right leg.
Hawes Joseph Munster Fusiliers 7902 (35178). Joseph Hawes Born 1893, Q4, Corofin registration district, Co. Clare. The 1901 census, he was noted as a 6 year old son of Michael Hawes a tailor and Bridget Hawes, of Grass, Muckanagh, Co. Clare. He was the 4th child of 7 in the family. In the 1911 census, he was noted as an 18 year old Tailor's assistant, working with a brother and sister in what appears to be their late father's tailoring business. The online BMD records note the marriage of Joseph Hawes in Corofin District in 1923, Q2. He died on 29th November 1972, and is buried in New Shanakyle Cemetery, Kilrush, Co. Clare.
The inscription reads:
Sacred heart of Jesus
have mercy on the soul of
Leader of the Connaught Rangers Mutiny
died 29th Nov 1972
his wife Mary
died 3rd Jan 1982
Erected by his loving wife and family.
Hayes Alfred (Addie) LC aged 19. Sentenced to 10 years. Returned to his home town of Boyle County Roscommon, he joined the Civic Guard in 1923. The Civic Guard were the forerunner of the Garda Síochána, the Irish Police force.
Hewson James. (AKA Hugh Hewson) Connaught Rangers M143289 Private and 10057 Lance Corporal. Born in Dublin in 1891 died on the 13 of October 1972. First enlisted in Dublin on the 23rd of August 1910, served throughout WW1 receiving the 1914 Star medal. Convicted and sentenced to 7 years reduced to 5 years. He served 2 years and 5 months in Portland and Maidstone Prisons. He was released in January 1923. He is described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 6 inches of fresh complexion with blue eyes and dark brown hair and a bullet wound entry and exit scar on his right knee.
Hughes John, Connaught Rangers 10794, 32285 and 7143826 Private. Born on the 28 of May 1893 died on the 8th of September 1975. Originally joined the 2nd Battalion Connaught Rangers in 1913, was discharged for wounds in 1915 and re-enlisted in 1919 in 1st Battalion Connaught Rangers. Following the mutiny at Jullundur in June 1920 he was court-martialled and sentenced to 1 year hard labour, imprisoned at Sialkot, India and Woking Prison England. He was released from Woking Prison on 23 June 1921. He was described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 3 and a half inches tall with fresh complexion brown hair and Hazel eyes.
The text below is an article that was published in The Airdrie and Coatbridge Advertiser in April 1966.
Coatbridge Man Recalls Facing Death Sentence
Took Part in Irish Regiments Mutiny in India
An Invitation to attend the 50th anniversary of the Easter Rising in Ireland was sent to Coatbridge man John Hughes - who as a soldier, was under sentence of death for mutiny in 1920.
John was serving in the ‘Devil’s Own’ 1st Battalion of the Connaught Rangers in the Punjab, India, in that year. At the same time in Ireland, under the scourge of the Black and Tans, trouble was brewing.
When news that Ireland was under British occupation reached the soldiers, four Irishmen refused to continue fighting in the King’s Khaki. The mutiny spread – and John Hughes became involved, although he was a Scotsman.
“Responsibility didn’t belong to anyone in particular,” he told the “Advertiser” this week, “we were all in it together.”
It was a mutiny without bloodshed. Any breach of discipline would have been exaggerated to extremes by the commanding officer. To john fell the task of seeing this didn’t happen.
“I stood on a box and shouted at them. All weapons and ammunition were entrusted to my care. Looting was forbidden.”
“There was no drunkenness, no brawling or rioting. The men accepted their self-inflicted privation and acted just as if under the officers’ control.”
FORTY PICKED OUT
But 40 of the mutineers were picked out and taken to Lucknow Detention Prison. “In the meantime,” john went on, “the remainder of us amused ourselves with cricket, football or boxing. Then on the sixth day of our protest four platoons charged our compound with fixed bayonets.”
“We were marched two miles to an open-air compound and left without food under a savage sun that burned 120 degrees in the shade. The compound was surrounded by barbed wire and machine guns were posted at each corner.”
These precautions were completely unnecessary. The prisoners were thousands of miles from home, without food, weapons or ammunition. The jungle was all around, escape was suicidal.”
Next Hughes and 39 others were transported to another prison. Each man was given a cell and was allowed one hours exercise a day.
“We were kept there for 30 days before the general commanding the area visited us and asked if there were any complaints.” John continued. “We said we had none as we thought complaining might go against us.”
The rebel soldiers were again transported this time back to their original barracks. There they were charged with being present at and not endeavouring to suppress a mutiny in His Majesty’s forces, they were liable to be shot.
It took three weeks to complete the proceedings. Of the 70 men on trial, seven were acquitted and 63 were convicted. All of the latter, including John Hughes were placed in Dagshal Prison awaiting sentence.
SENTENCED TO DEATH
“One morning in September I heard the clatter of boots in the corridor outside my cell. A slip of paper was pushed under my door. It said: ‘sentenced to death’.”
But the sentence was never carried out. Instead the men were lined up in the prison square and were sentenced to periods of imprisonment from 2 to 21 years.
One man, however, Private James Daly was put before the firing squad. “To this day it is not known exactly why Daly was shot,” John Continued. “He was only 21, a shy, retiring man who never spoke a word in his own defence. He was executed on November 2 1920 and buried at Dagshal, far from his native Mayo.”
After that John served eight months hard labour at Silkot. From there he was taken by ship to Woking England where he remained until 1921.
Now he is in Coathill Hospital, getting on in years, and unable to attend the anniversary of the Easter Rising. He concluded “It’s a long time since all this happened. But the memory of it is pencilled on my brain”.
Hynes Patrick. Born in 1899 died on the 24th of December 1973 in Coventry UK. (Leinster Regiment 4506 Private, Worcestershire Regiment 64525 Private, Labour Corps 576651, Connaught Rangers 32383 Private). He enlisted in the 4th Connaught Rangers in 1915, was transferred to Reserve (under age) in 1916 and was transferred to the Connaught Rangers in 1919 following a year in the Leinster Regiment during WWI. Following the mutiny he was court-martialled and sentenced to death. This sentence was subsequently commuted to penal servitude for life. He was born in the parish of Laurencetown near the town of Ballinasloe County Galway
Kearney Michael. 15072/LR 117 (32384) aged 21. Sentenced to 15 years. In 1970, days before the repatriation of the bodies of Peter Sears and Patrick Smythe Michael F Kearney gave an interview at his home in London, the interview was published in several newspapers in Ireland and the UK. Kearney, who was nearly seventy years old and a native of County Clare, had worked as a tourist guide in London taking tourists on guided tours in Europe, he could speak several European languages.
“We were in Dagshai prison, Punjab, 42 of us, sentenced to penal servitude, some for life, and James Joseph Daly with 13 others were to die by firing squad. Then, 12 had their death sentence commuted to penal servitude for life but Daly was informed he would be executed on November 2nd 1920.
He was the leader of the mutineers at Solan, a military outpost near the Tibetan border in the high Himalayas. A battalion stationed at Jullundur, infuriated by reports from home of the reign of terror conducted by the Black and Tans, had decided to ground arms and refuse to soldier any longer until the last British soldier left Ireland. Daly decided to do likewise, and that night marched a strong group of the detachment to the Commanding Officer’s bungalow. Here he repeated the protest of his comrades down in the plains. The C.O. was stunned on hearing this, to him, outrageous and insane demand, and tried by cajolery and threats to get the older and more seasoned soldiers to disassociate themselves from the mutiny. He pointed out the futility of their action so many thousands of miles from Ireland. He was met by stony silence until the commanding figure of Daly stepped up to him and bluntly informed him that neither blandishments nor threats would avail.
The next night scouts reported the advance of troops and Daly ordered an immediate attack on the magazine were the arms were stored. The mutineers were met by a murderous fire and Sears and Smythe received fatal injuries. Next morning we were completely surrounded by English regiments and placed under arrest.
After we were tried we were conveyed to Dagshai prison, a gaunt, grim, medieval structure of evil reputation, there to wait confirmation of our sentences. One dreary day an officer arrived from Simla and all the mutineers were paraded before him. He informed all under sentence of death, except Daly, that their sentences had been commuted to penal servitude for life.
Turning to Daly he said ‘I’m very sorry Daly but your execution is confirmed and you are to be executed by firing squad on November 2nd.’ Daly replied, I am alright sir, I am not afraid to die and I am glad my comrades are to be spared. For week before his execution this brave young man – he was only 22 years – lived among us, taking part in all our poor pranks and simple pastimes in the prison yard.
Then one day he was whisked away to a detention cell outside the prison. We experienced a sense of loss and a feeling of desolation – he was so brave, so gay, and so sincere and we could hardly credit that such a sacrifice was demanded in India. The Catholic chaplains, Fathers Baker and Correya were in continual attendance on the lonely prisoner and kept us informed about his welfare.
On the evening before the execution at the request of Father Baker one of our men called ‘Forty Walsh’ was allowed out of his cell and kneeling on a spot near the centre of the prison recited five sorrowful decades of the Rosary. We all knelt at our cell doors and responded. We were not allowed to say farewell to our comrade.
The weary night passed darkly and slowly and some on that side of the prison facing the yard kept vigil. They saw the dreadful procession move towards the execution wall. I was awakened around dawn by the shattering bang of the death volley from the firing party of twelve. The governor of the prison, a humane man, lets us out of our cells later in the day and we had the melancholy experience of seeing the wall of execution.
The poor body had been almost truncated and some of the men gathered tiny portions of human flesh which adhered to the wall. These sad scraps were laced in a little matchbox and given to Father Baker to be buried with our heroic comrade. Father Baker was with him to the last and he fell saying Jesus receive my soul.”
Kearns Michael. 8244/4143913 (32395). Though not on hunger strike was in solitary confinement from the beginning of imprisonment in India. Was sent to Strangeways Prison where he was kept under medical observation. Eventually died in Dublin Union. Death claimed to be due to malnutrition, which followed from ill-health after prison, and poverty. He was described as a robust man going to prison.
Keenan William RIF 19829 (32400) aged 24 Sentenced to 10 years.
Kelly John. Born in 1896 died on the 12th of December 1940. He enlisted in the Machine Gun Corps at Boyle County Roscommon on the 29th of August 1915 service number 162461. He re-enlisted into the Connaught Rangers on the 17th of June 1919. Service numbers while serving with the Connaught Rangers 5820, 32295 and 7143857. He is described on his discharge papers as 5 foot 7 and three quarter inches, of Sallow complexion, with brown hair and brown eyes, notable marks or scars are described as Freckles on body. He was court-martialled and sentenced to death, commuted to penal servitude for life. He was interned in Dagshai prison (India), Portland and Maidstone prisons England and was released on the 4th January 1923.
Kelly Patrick. 7762/7144064 (32599)
Kerrigan Charles. Connaught Rangers 32245 Private. Born in 1900 in Glencar, Manorhamilton, County Leitrim. Enlisted at Galway on the 20th of May 1919. Took part in the Mutiny at Solon and was found guilty and sentenced death commuted to 20 years imprisonment and discharged with Ignominy. He was released from Maidstone Prison on the 4th of January 1923. He is described in his discharge papers as five foot seven and a half inches, fresh complexion with blue eyes and brown hair.
Lally Stephen. Born in 1898. Border Regiment 2011 and 240434 Private, Connaught Rangers 32333 and 7143865 Private. He was court-martialled and sentenced to 20 years of penal servitude commuted to 15 years and discharged with Ignominy. He was released from Maidstone Prison, England in January 1923. He enlisted at Workington Cumberland UK on the 4th of August 1914. He is described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 7 inches, of dark complexion with brown eyes and black hair and with S.L. tattooed on his left forearm. He received the 1914 star for service during WW1 and three wound stripes. He died on the 7th of June 1961.
Loperman Patrick Joseph. LC Leinster Regiment 4675 (35099)
Lynch John (Jack). Connaught Rangers 7211 and 35106 Private. Born on the 19th of May 1899. Died in 1964 in Ardnanagh County Roscommon. He went to America in 1927 where he remained until 1963 when he returned to Roscommon. Enlisted in January 1916 with the 3rd Battalion Connaught Rangers, He was sent to France with 6th Battalion Connaught Rangers and re-enlisted after World War I. He transferred from 2nd Battalion Connaught Rangers to the 1st Battalion in 1919. While stationed in India, He took part in the mutiny and was court-martialled and sentenced to 10 years penal servitude. He was detained in Portland and Maidstone Prisons England. He was released in January 1923. He was described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 3 inches tall of fresh complexion, blue eyes and brown hair.
Lynott LC John 8397/7144271 (35086)
Maher Patrick. 18236/RDF 25711(35098) aged 28. Sentenced to 10 years reduced to 5 years. Born the 10th of January 1892. Enlisted in the Dublin Fusiliers on the 17th of January 1916 at Donaghmore County Tyrone, he transferred to the Connaught Rangers in France in 1918 he was discharged on the 26th of March 1919 and re-enlisted in the Connaught Ranger on the 27th of March 1919 at Galway. He was discharged from the Connaught Rangers with Ignominy on the 24th of January 1921 after being convicted of Mutiny he was sentenced to 10 years reduced to 5 years. He was imprisoned in Maidstone Prison, England and was released in January 1923. He was described on his discharge papers as 5 foot 9 and a quarter inches, of fresh complexion with blue eyes and dark hair.
Mangan Patrick Joseph (32662), enlisted at Ballina county Mayo on the 7th of October 1919 aged 21 years and served for 1 year and 167 days. He was found guilty and discharged with Ignominy and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment serving 1 year and 9 months. He is described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 7 inches, fair complexion, blue eyes and fair hair.
Mannion Patrick. Connaught Rangers 1422 and 32582 Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers 431430. Born on the 18th of November 1886 in Terenure Dublin, he died on the 12th of April 1959. Sentenced to 15 years imprisonment and discharged with Ignominy, served 2 years 7 months in Portland and Maidstone Prisons. He first enlisted in the British Army on the 4th of November 1914 and was discharge on the 14th of September 1919 relisting in the Connaught Rangers on the 15th of September 1919 at Dublin. He was described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 9 inches, of fresh complexion with brown eyes and brown hair, he had a small scar on his left elbow.
McGowan John. LC
McGrath Joseph. Northumberland Fusiliers 65724 Private, Training Reserve Battalion 102186 Private and Connaught Rangers 35209 Private. Sentenced to one year.
McGrath Patrick (40196 and 7144598). Sentenced to five years imprisonment. He was described on his discharge papers as 5 foot 7 and a half inches, of dark complexion, brown eyes and dark hair. He a long military service with the British Army, he enlisted on the 1st of February 1905 at Nenagh County Tipperary in the Royal Irish Regiment and was discharged on the 11th of November 1913 as medically unfit. He re-enlisted on the 6th of October 1915 at Cork in the Royal Regiment of Artillery and served until 16th of February 1919, he enlisted the next day at Fermoy County Cork in the Connaught Rangers serving from the 17th of February 1919 until the 6th of April 1921 when he was discharged with Ignominy for Mutiny. Due to ill health he served part of his prison sentence in Parkhurst Prison Isla of White. Patrick McGrath was killed on Sunday the 24th of August 1947 in an accident when he fell from a lorry as it rounded a sharp bend. He was 63 years old and was living at Connolly Street, Fermoy, County Cork, the accident happened in Ballyduff County Waterford.
Miranda John 5734/7144229 (35038). Born in England of Italian or Spanish extraction, it was believed his father was Spanish/Italian and his mother Irish. He died in Dagshai Prison aged 24. Attempts were made when repatriating the bodies of Sears, Smythe and Daly to bring home Miranda’s body but problems arose when no relatives could be found. He is listed on the Commonwealth War Grave site and is recorded as being buried in Kirkee 1914 – 1918 Memorial Cemetery in India. His name is also on the Connaught Rangers memorial in Glasnevin Cemetery. His parents are recorded as Joseph and Elizabeth Miranda, of 11, Shelley St., Bootle, Merseyside.
Moorehouse John James. Connaught Rangers 32472 and 7143976 Private. Born 1899. Enlisted in Wexford in August 1919. Found guilty of taking part in the Mutiny at Solon and sentenced to Penal Servitude for life reduced to twenty years.
Moran Francis Joseph. Connaught Rangers 32619 Private. Born in 1899 he was a native of Ballinamore County Leitrim. Enlisted at Sligo on the 30th of September 1919 and was transferred from 2nd to the 1st Battalion in March 1920. Following the Mutiny in Solon, India, he was court-martialled and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. He was officially discharged on 16 March 1921. He served 2 and a half-year imprisonment, 6 months in Dagshai where he suffered from Malaria being hospitalised on one occasion and 2 years in Woking Prison, England. He was released in January 1923. He was described in his discharges papers as 5 foot six and a half inches of fresh complexion with grey eyes and brown hair.
Moran Thomas Connaught Rangers 32277 Private. Born in 1900. Enlisted at Galway on the 6th of June 1919. Court-martialled found guilty and sentenced to death commuted to penal servitude for life, he was discharged from the Army on the 22nd of March 1921. He served 2 years and 7 months of this sentence in Dagshai, India, and Portland and Maidstone, England. Described in his discharge papers as five foot five inches, of fresh complexion with grey eyes and dark hair. He served in the National Army on his return to Ireland and then went to the U.S.A. where he worked for the American Building Maintenance Company in Sacramento California.
Murray Thomas Joseph. Army Cyclist Corps 7812 Corporal, Connaught Rangers 35046 and 4774 Acting Lance Corporal. Born in 1893. First enlisted in Dublin on the 11th of November 1914. He re-enlisted in the Connaught Rangers in February 1919. he took part in the mutiny at Jullundur, was court-martialled and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment commuted to 3 years penal servitude. He was detained in Dagshai Prison India, Portland and Maidstone Prisons England. He is described in his discharge papers as five foot four inches, of fresh complexion with blue eyes and fair hair. He died on the 7th of November 1964.
Oliver John. (8519) aged 34 Sentenced to life reduced to 16 years. Died in the County Home Loughrea County Galway on the 18th of January 1932 he was 44 years old. He was found in his bed suffering from throat wounds. The inquest into his death found in accordance with the medical evidence. It was stated at the inquest that he bore a grievance against the British government for refusing him a pension. A nurse gave evidence stating that Oliver appeared to be normal up to January the 18th, she added that while dressing his wound he said “Let me die here, I want to go to Heaven.” The inquest did not record how he got the throat wounds.
Prendergast Frank. Connaught Rangers 29451 Private Royal Irish Regiment 7161 Private 1st of January 1918 to April 1919. Born in 1899 Enlisted in Dublin in August 1919. Court-martialled and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment and discharged with Ignominy on the 24th of January 1921. He was detained in Dagshai India and Portland and Maidstone England. He was released in March 1922. He is described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 6 inches, of fresh complexion with blue eyes and brown hair, he had both forearms tattooed and a scar on his right eye.
Regan William 7143136/10121/8933 Private 1st Battalion Connaught Rangers. Died on the 4th or 5thof September 1920 aged 34 years, buried in Ambala Cantonment Cemetery India. His name is also recorded on the Kirkee Memorial along with J Miranda, Daly, Sears and Smyth were also recorded on this memorial. William Regan most likely died from enteric (typhoid) fever or pneumonia while in prison. His name appears on a list of those charged with mutiny at Dagshai on the 23rd of August 1920, he died within two week of being charged so was not tried. His sister made an application for a grant under the Irish Governments Connaught Rangers scheme but this scheme only applied to widows and children of deceased Connaught Rangers.
He was born in Ballymodan, Bandon, Cork and was employed as a Tailor before joining the army. He re-enlisted in the 1st Battalion The Connaught Rangers on the 7th of January 1919 at Dover in England, he was 33 years old. He had previous service of 12 years and 83 days before re-enlisting with the Connaught Rangers at Dover.
Scally Patrick aged 21 Connaught Rangers 32609 Private. Sentenced to 10 years reduced to 7 years and discharged with Ignominy. Born in 1900 Died in Canada in 1955, he was one of five Boyle County Roscommon men who took part in the mutiny. He enlisted at Longford on the 27th of September 1919. He was described in his discharge papers as being 5 foot 7 inches tall, of fresh complexion with blue eyes and black hair. He served for a number of years in the Garda (Irish Police) before he went to Canada. He claimed for a disability pension due to Tuberculosis which he claimed was due to ill treatment while in prison, his claim was rejected due to lack of evidence.
Scanlon John. (6190, 35022 and 7144215). Born 1899 died in 1964. Enlisted at Sligo on the 29th of February 1915 discharged on the 5th of February 1919 then re-enlisted under Army order 4 on the 6thof February 1919 at Galway. He was discharged with Ignominy on the 18th of March 1921 having being convicted of Mutiny and sentenced to 20 years in prison. He is described on his discharge papers as 5 foot 7 and a half inches, fresh complexion with hazel eyes and dark hair. He served 2 years and 5 months of his sentence in Dagshai India and Portland and Maidstone prisons in England, he was released in January 1923.
Sweeney Christopher Patrick Connaught Rangers 32546 Private. Born in Dublin 1895. Enlisted on the 11th of September in Edinburgh Scotland 1919 discharged on the 24th of January 1921. He was sentenced to penal servitude for life later commuted to 20 years in prison. He imprisoned in Dagshai in India and Portland and Maidstone prisons in England serving 2 years and seven months.
In his statement to the Irish Government he lists the four men who started the Mutiny as Private Hawes County Clare, Private Gogarty in I.F.S. Army, Private Lally England and Private Sweeney Dublin.
Walsh Joseph Connaught Rangers 5640, 4143496, 32240 and 7143796 Private. Born in 1886. He enlisted in March 1907 at Tullamore County Offaly in the 11th and 13th Hussars until 1914. Joined the Connaught Rangers in 1915 and re-enlisted again in 1919. He served during WWI in France, Egypt, Salonika, Palestine and Serbia and again in France prior to the Armistice. He was discharged with Ignominy on the 16th of March 1921. He was convicted of taking part in the Mutiny and was sentenced to five years penal servitude reduced to three years. He was described in his discharge papers as being 5 foot nine and a half inches tall, fresh complexion with brown eyes and brown hair. He was imprisoned in Dagshai, transferred to England in January 1921 and imprisoned in Portland, Maidstone and Walton Prisons. He was released from Walton Prison on 23 March 1922. He served in the Free State Army on return to Ireland.
Willis Patrick LC RIR 11732 (10963). Born in 1897. He enlisted in the Leinster Regiment on the 28thof October 1912 and transferred to the Connaught Rangers on the 3rd of August 1914. He took part in the mutiny at Jullundur (Jalandhar), was court-martialled and sentenced to 3 years penal servitude. He served 22 months of that sentence in Dagshai Prison India, Portland and Maidstone Prisons England. He claimed to suffer from a disability as a result of ill treatment of Bread and Water punishments while serving his prison sentence for which he received a pension of eight schillings a week from the British Army. He is described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 5 inches, of pale complexion, blue eyes and fair hair he also had a scar on his chin and left shoulder.
The list below contains the names and details of people who took part in the Mutiny or claimed to have taken part in the Mutiny but because they were sentenced to less than one year in prison the records of their participation are not as detailed as those sentenced to more than one year in prison.
Birkett Patrick Joseph 7144273 Private Connaught Rangers. He enlisted on the 10th of August 1914 at Renmore Barracks Galway and served for 6 years and 7 months. He was discharged after being court-martialled. Following his return from India, Birkett worked as a painter in Renmore Barracks.
Coleman Peter 9172 Connaught Rangers Private. Enlisted on the 12th of August 1907 and served 13 years in the 1st battalion The Connaught Rangers, he was discharged on the 7th of June 1922. He was Court Martialled for taking part in the Mutiny at Jullundur but was acquitted due to lack of evidence. After returning to Ireland he served in the National Army from the 5th of August 1922 to the 1st of May 1946.
Canavan Richard Thomas 7143985 Private 1st Battalion The Connaught Rangers. He was not court-martialled but was placed in confinement for taking part in the mutiny 7 or 8 weeks and discharged from the Army on release. He enlisted at Brunswick Street Dublin on the 27th of August 1919.
Connolly John Lance Corporal. He was dead in 1934 when his sister made an application to the Irish Government. In her application his sister claims he died as a result of cruel treatment during the Mutiny and after while in prison in India. The list of Connaught Rangers who took part in the Mutiny submitted to the Irish Government contains the name John Connolly 35067 Lance Corporal.
Cox Patrick. Connaught Rangers 32498 Lance Corporal. Sentenced to 6 months and dishonourable discharge. Made an application to the Irish Government for a pension but did not qualify as the pension was only awarded to those who had been sentenced to at least 12 months. In his application he gives his service number as 32498. In his pension application he states he enlisted at Galway on the 12th of August 1914 and April 5th 1915 and served a total of 7 years in the British Army.
Derrick Martin. Connaught Rangers 7143742 Private. Enlisted on the 11th of April 1919 in Galway. Claims he took part in the Mutiny and his name appears on the list of Mutineers at Solon listed as 32167 Boy Derrick. Claims he was sentenced to 1 year imprisonment which he served in Dagshia India being released in May 1922. His discharge papers state he was discharged on the 4th of July 1922 as Services no longer being required having served three years and 85 days. He is described in his discharge papers as five foot three and a quarter inches, fresh complexion with blue eyes and light brown hair.
Donohoe Patrick Sergeant. 32397 7023 (322582).
Fitzgerald Michael (Connaught Ranger 11222 Private, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers 48399 Private). Sentenced to death commuted to life. Enlisted in Cork on the 8th of July 1916. He was discharged on the 22nd of August due to disbandment of the Connaught Rangers. He claimed to have taken part in the Mutiny but was not charged.
Fitzsimons James 7143980 Private 1st Battalion The Connaught Rangers. He enlisted at Brunswick Street Dublin on the 30th of August 1919. He was not court-martialled but was placed in confinement for some months where he suffered and was hospitalised for Dysentery and Malaria. He was discharged from the Army on release from Hospital.
Groarke (Fleming) John. 10473 Private 1st Battalion The Connaught Rangers. John Groarke who stated he served as John Fleming made several applications for a pension from the Irish Government. On three claims he made three differing statement as to the length of time he spent in prison. His name did not appear on any of the lists of those involved in the Mutiny.
Hanlon John Private 3222. He enlisted in May 1915 in Glasgow, Scotland, in the Royal Munster Fusiliers, was discharged in 1918 and re-enlisted in the Connaught Rangers in June 1919. He was discharged for misconduct having taken part in the Mutiny. He was detained for five months before being discharged.
Kelly Patrick Sergeant Duke of Cornwalls Light Infantry 5858 (32292).
Lloyd John. Born in 1884. 8378 Connaught Rangers Serjeant. Joined the Connaught Rangers on the 8th of November 1904 and was discharged on the 16th of June 1922 services no longer required, he was not charged or tried for taking part in the Mutiny. He claimed he took part in the Mutiny and was imprisoned in Dagshai Prison but was released and selected to Cross Examine all the witnesses, his claim relating to cross examining all the witnesses was made in his application to the Irish Government for a pension. He was married with two children one of his children died when he was in Dagshia Prison and is buried in Dagshia Cemetery.
Loftus John Joseph. Connaught Rangers 8158 and 35058 Private. Born on the 13th of March 1900. Enlisted at Sligo Town Hall on the 9th of March 1917. He claims to have joined the Royal Irish Rifles in 1915 and deserted to join the Rising in Dublin in 1916 but I could find no record of him having served in the British Army prior to March 1917 or no record of him having fought during the Rising. He was tried for taking part in the mutiny and found not guilty due to insufficient evidence, he claims to have paid witnesses to give false testimony. He was discharged from the Connaught Rangers on the 21st of December 1921, he served more than five months in detention before the trial.
Madigan Daniel. Born in 1891.Enlisted in the Royal Irish Fusiliers on the 16 of March 1915 at Buttevant County Cork transferred to the Connaught Rangers on the 17th of February 1919. Claims to have taken part in the Mutiny and was court-martialled but there is no record of his sentence claims to have been detained in Dagshai Prison India from the end of June to November 1920. He was discharged as no longer fit for duty in March 1922.
McConnell Patrick. Connaught Rangers 7144116 Private. Born in 1900. Enlisted at Omagh on the 8th of October 1919 Claims to have taken part in the Mutiny by disobeying orders. He was held in Prison for several months and was acquitted at his trail. He was discharge from the Connaught Rangers on the 27th of February 1922 for misconduct. He was described in his discharge papers as 5 foot 6 inches, of fresh complexion with brown eyes and dark hair. He continued to serve with the Connaught Rangers after his acquittal for Mutiny, his discharge for misconduct would appear not to be related to the Mutiny.
O’Donnell Patrick Cyril. Born in 1900. Connaught Rangers 32125 Lance-Corporal. Joined the Gárda Síochána in August 1922 and was discharged in 1924 service number 1904. He was tried for taking part in the Mutiny at Dagshai and acquitted. He was discharged from the Army in February 1921, he claims he was discharged for taking part in the Mutiny.
O'Donoghue Joseph. Leinster Regiment 10358 Private Acting Corporal, Connaught Rangers 15108 Lance Corporal and 7144864 Private. Claims to have taken part in the Mutiny at Jullundur but was not court martialled.
Reaper John Thomas. Service number 7143694 and 32099 Lance-Corporal 1st battalion The Connaught Rangers. Enlisted in January 1919 in Belfast. He was not court-martialled following the mutiny but was awaiting trial in Dagshai Prison and was subsequently released in November 1920. In 1934 he was serving as Captain in the Óglaigh na hÉireann/National Forces.
Regan Denis (Patrick Regan) Leinster Regiment 5284 and Connaught Ranger 32319. Denis Regan appears on the list of Connaught Rangers submitted to the Irish Government by the Connaught Rangers committee, the list is from the Court martial assembled at Dagshai on the 23rd of August 1920, his number of the list is 32219. The Irish Government files contain a letter from a Patrick Regan in the U.S.A. requesting an application form for a Connaught Ranger pension, no further correspondence was received from Patrick Regan.
Shallow William 32431/RIR 8867 (32678).
Tierney Michael. He enlisted in the Munster Fusiliers in 1903 and was transferred to the Reserve in 1911. He joined the Connaught Rangers in June 1912 under the name Michael O'Leary and served during the war. In 1919 he enlisted for four years in the Post Bellum Army, receiving a bounty £50. In the summer of 1920 he was stationed at Jullundur and Solon, he took part in the mutiny, was court-martialled and sentenced to 28 days imprisonment with hard labour in Rawalpindi Military Prison.
Woods Joseph. Leinster Regiment 10280 Private, Connaught Rangers 7144573 Private and 15240 Corporal. Listed on a list submitted to the Irish Government in relation to Connaught Rangers who took part in the Mutiny at Jullundur. Unable to find any other references to his service with the British Army or his part in the Mutiny.