War of Independence
On Saturday the 13th of April 1918 two men were shot during a raid on the Police Hut at Gortatlea, County Kerry. The Police Hut which was at the railway station was raided by a group of up to six men at about 10.30pm. The Hut was manned by four Policemen, two of which were on railway duty on the nearby platform, the raiders struck one of the Policemen in the Hut, the Policeman staggered outside calling for help, the two Policemen on the platform fired several shots hitting at least two of the raiders.
Richard Laide, Volunteer, Ballymacelligott Company, Irish Volunteers. He was employed as a farm labourer. He received a wound to the back the bullet perforating his intestines, he was able to walk to a nearby labourer’s cottage where he was kept under watch by Police and Military, he was removed to Tralee Infirmary where he died on the afternoon of the 14th.
John Browne. 2nd Lieutenant, Ballymacelligott Company, Irish Volunteers. He was employed as a shopkeeper in the family grocery shop. He was shot through the head and died a short time later outside the Police Hut. He had been a member of the Irish Volunteers since 1914. His brother Robert Browne who was shot and killed by British forces at Knocksluagha, Knocknagoshel, County Kerry on the 8th of February 1921.
The Irish War of Independence began on the 21st of January 1919 and ended with a truce on the 11th of August 1921.
On the 20th of January 1919 Sergeant Daniel Joseph McGandy, A Company, Derry City Area, Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. was killed in Derry, the circumstances of his death were not established but it was reported he was removing bombs from Craig's Engineering Works, Derry when he was discovered and attacked by members of British forces.
On the 3rd of March the Irish Times reported on the death of Derry postman Daniel J. McGandy. Mr. McGandy had disappeared six week ago and was not heard of until his body was found floating in the River Foyle. The deceased went off duty at 10pm on the 20th of January, an hour and a half lateer a postman’s bag coat and cap as well as a fully loaded six chamber revolver were found on Derry Quay, it was stated in evidence that McGandy did not have a postman’s bag on the night of his disappearance and postal witnesses could not explain where the postman’s bag came from. The jury returned a verdict of death by drowning.
On the 21st of February 1919 Patrick Casey Volunteer, C Company, 2nd Kerry Brigade, Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. was shot and killed at "Lump of Beef", Kenmare Road, Derrycunihy, County Kerry. Casey was killed while acting on an order issued by GHQ Dublin that if a non-Volunteer was in the possession of a gun the gunshould be seized by Volunteers. Casey went to disarm John Lyne, Gamekeeper for the Earl of Kenmare, and was shot in his attempt to take a rifle. He was born in 1893 and aged about 26 years old when he died, he was a native of Kerry.
Robert Joseph Byrne
On the 6th of April 1919 Robert Joseph Byrne, Captain, 2nd Battalion, Limerick City Brigade, Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. died in an attempt to rescue him from Limerick Hospital. He was arrested in April 1919, went on hunger-strike and was removed to Limerick Hospital. An attempt was made by the local I.R.A. unit to rescue him from Limerick Hospital in which he was fatally wounded. It was reported that Byrne was shot by Constable Spillane Royal Irish Constabulary.
Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. Volunteer Martin Savage was killed in an ambush in Ashtown on the Dublin Meath border. The ambush was planned in an attempt to kill the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Viscount French who, at the time, was Commander of the British Army in Ireland. French was travelling in a convoy of vehicles, due to the information the I.R.A. received in relation to the travel arrangements of French they attacked the second car but French was travelling in the first car. French’s guard in the second car opened heavy fire on the attackers, a third car also arrived on the scene and the occupants opened fire on the attackers. Savage was mortally wounded, his body was carried by Dan Breen and Tom Kehoe to Kelly’s Pub.
He was a Volunteer with the 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers and fought in the G.P.O. during the Easter Rising. Born in 1898 he was 21 years old when he died.
On the 12th of February 1920 Officer Commanding East Wicklow Brigade Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. Seamus (James) O’Brien was shot dead outside his shop in Market Square, Rathdrum, County Wicklow. O’Brien was a partner in the business O’Brien and Walsh and had just recently been married. O’Brien was standing outside his shop with two other men when two R.I.C., constables Mulligan and Dougherty, passed. At the inquest into O’Brien’s death the R.I.C. men stated that as they passed a shot was fired hitting Constable Mulligan, both R.I.C. men returned fire and reported seeing one of the three men fall. The inquest returned a verdict that O’Brien died as a result of a bullet wound inflicted by one of the police men and they were not satisfied that the policeman’s wound was caused by a bullet and not satisfied that shots were fired at the police. Matt Kavanagh in his statement to the Bureau of Military History stated that O’Brien was shot in an ambush of the R.I.C. men. He was a Volunteer with A Company, 4th Battalion, Wicklow Brigade, I.R.A. and had fought in Enniscorthy during the 1916 Rising.
On the 24th of February 1920 Vice Commandant Martin Devitt Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. was killed in action when taking part in an ambush of R.I.C. men, the ambush was arranged on a regular R.I.C. patrol in order to relieve the R.I.C. men of their rifles and ammunition. The ambush took place on the road between Fermoyle and Inagh County Clare.
On Friday the 5th of March 1920 the Irish Time reported on an Inquest into the body of a man found in a coffin in a bog at Clooney near Ennistymon County Clare on Tuesday. The body was identified as that of a local man who was killed while taking part in an attack on the RIC in the Inagh district at Fermoyle Cross a few miles from where the body was found. The dead man was Martin Devitt of Cahersherkin Ennistymon, he was 25 years old and the son of a local farmer. The body was identified by his brother. The verdict of the Inquest jury was “That Martin Devitt died on February the 24th from a bullet wound received while fighting for the freedom of his country, which freedom is prevented by misgovernment and we tender our sympathy to his relatives.”
On the 14th of April 1920 a group of young Sinn Fein supports were celebrating the release of hunger strikers from Mountjoy Prison, the celebration was taking place at Canada Cross in Miltown Malbay County Clare. A group of R.I.C. policemen and soldiers from the Highland Light Infantry attacked the crowd killing Volunteer John O’Loughlan. Two civilians were also killed in the same attack, the civilians were Thomas O’Leary and Patrick Hennessy.
On the 16th of April 1920 Thomas Mulholland, Dundalk Battalion, Dundalk Brigade, Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. was shot dead by RIC Sergeant Joseph Bustard when Mulholland along with nine other men attacked an R.I.C. patrol of three policemen. The incident happened on Bridge Street Dundalk near Walsh’s Gate, the policemen noticed that half the gate was opened, which was unusual, and as they went to investigate they were attacked by ten men.
Thomas was born in 1887 at Carrickrobin, Dundalk, County Louth. He and his brother Patrick were involved in the 1916 rising along with 70 other Dundalk men. They were both members of Sein Fein since the early days. On the 16th April 1920 Thomas was on active duty along with most other Dundalk Volunteers to obtain weapons from the local RIC Barracks as they had very few weapons (he was Quartermaster of A Company).
They lost their weapons originally in 1914 when the National Volunteers split and kept all the rifles. It’s alleged that there were as many as 100 rifles and revolvers at this stage. The weapons that they collected again by 1916 had to be dumped at a derelict house in Dunboyne in early May 1916 after the rising failed.
Thomas never married. He kept greyhounds and won many national races. In the beginning, prominent IRB members were encouraged to keep dogs, as the race meetings were used as a cover for IRB meetings in Dundalk.
The man that shot him was Sgt Joseph Bustard. He said at the inquest that he feared for his life as 3 RIC members were ambushed and killed weeks earlier in Tipperary. After the inquest, Sgt Bustard retired and went on the run to Belfast where he lived with his wife and daughter until the summer of 1923 when he went by boat to Canada. He settled straight away in Pennsylvania and died sometime after 1940. I haven’t found his death record yet. He worked as a gardener aged 67 in 1940. His daughter Louisa Bustard only died in May 2005. He had no other family. (Text and image supplied by Sean Daly, Dundalk).
On the 18th of April 1920 while ambushing three R.I.C. men who were on their way to mass in County Clare Volunteer Séan Breen Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. was shot dead by one of the R.I.C. men. Breen had shot dead R.I.C. Sergeant Patrick Carroll and was pursuing Constable Martyn, as Breen closed in Martyn drew his revolver and fired hitting Breen in the forehead killing him instantly.
On Sunday the 9th of May 1920 Francis Aidan Gleeson Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. who also went under the name Redmond died from complications after an appendices operation at the Mater Hospital Dublin, the complications were a liver infection as a result of a hunger strike undertaken by the dead man in Mountjoy. Gleeson had been sentenced to two months in prison for possession of firearms and a further month for not answering to his bail conditions, he was 25 years old, single and employed as a clerk.
On Wednesday the 19th of May 1920 Joseph Saunders Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. was shot dead by the RIC on Patrick Street Cork City. Saunders was 35 years old and employed as a dock labourer, he was an ex-British Army Soldier.
A young man from Carlow died of burns and shock on Friday the 21st of May, he was admitted to the Mater Hospital Dublin on the 12th of May. The young man name was Patrick Meaney. Evidence was produced at the inquest into his death that he may have been involved in the burning of the abandoned Police Barracks at Ballybrack County Dublin. A large force of Volunteers attended the Funeral of Meaney who was buried at Tomard about three miles from Leighlinbridge County Carlow. The coffin was draped with a republican flag and the mourners numbered around 3000 which included at least 3 marching bands.
Liam Scully was shot and mortally wounded in an attack on the Barracks in Kilmallock County Limerick. Scully had to be buried at midnight to avoid the attention of the Black and Tans. He was from County Kerry. Scully held a B.A. degree and was a teacher with the Gaelic League. He is buried in Templeglantine.
Peter C McCreesh of Aughanduff, Armagh, was shot dead at Cullyhanna, South Armagh when with a group of about seven others he attempted to hold up a Policeman. The Policeman was fired on and hit but managed to fire seven shots at McCreesh, killing him. The incident happened after what was described as a Sinn Fein rally. The Policeman, Sergeant Holland, died later from wounds received.
On Saturday the 18th of June 1920 Thomas Brett aged 25 of Moyaliff Drombane Thurles County Tipperary died from gunshot wounds in the Mater Hospital Dublin. Brett had been admitted to the hospital on the 8th of June. The inquest could find no evidence of who had fired the shots that resulted in the death of Brett but it was reported that a large number, as much as 3000, Volunteers, ex-soldiers, Sinn Fein Club members and Cumann-na-mBan attended the funeral. There was a large military and police presence monitoring the funeral, after the police and military left the cemetery a party of Volunteers fired a volley of shots over the grave of Brett.
On the 5th of July 1920 I.R.A. Volunteer James Dunne of Ballintray, Gorey, County Wexford was shot dead by R.I.C. Constable Henry Lenihan at Dunbar’s Public House in Ferns. An inquest into Dunne’s death returned a verdict of wilful murder against the R.I.C. Constable. Constable Lenihan was charged with murder, at his trial was found not guilty of murder but guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to seven years penal servitude. Lenihan was a native of Cork.
On Wednesday the 21st of July James Cogan was shot dead by British Soldiers when a military check-point he was stopped at came under fire. Cogan was an Irish Republican Policeman and had two men in his custody, the men were suspected cattle rustlers.
On the 21st of July 1920 I.R.A. Volunteer Michael Conway was shot dead on the bridge in Ennistymon County Clare when he and two other I.R.A. Volunteers attempted to take revolvers from two British Army officers of The Royal Scots Regiment, one of the officers drew his revolver and shot Conway dead. Conway was unmarried, 22 years old and had been employed as a baker.
On that the e 12th of August 1920 I.R.A. Volunteer Edward Nolan died accidently when he drowned while swimming in the Slaney River while on an I.R.A. weekend training camp. Nolan was a native of Askamore, Ferns, County Wexford. He was employed as a Draper’s assistant and an active member of Sinn Fein, the G.A.A. and the Gaelic League. He was 21 years old and had served time in prison for wearing a Volunteer Uniform at the funeral of Seamus Rafter.
On the 15th of August 1920 2nd Lieutenant Joseph McMahon (rank recorded as Captain in some records), C Battalion, 3rd Brigade, Northern Division, Irish Republican Army was killed when a bomb he was testing exploded in his hands, another Volunteer, Patrick Roach was wounded in the same incident. They were testing a time-fuse bomb when it exploded prematurely due to the fuse being wet. He was from Cavan, single and aged about 26 years old. He was employed as a Coach Builder.
IRA Volunteers Jack O'Connell from Kanturk, Cork and Patrick Clancy from Limerick, were both shot dead by the Military at Derrygallon County Cork. On the morning of Monday the 16th of August both men were sleeping at O'Connell’s house. The alarm was raised as the Military approached and both men attempted to escape. Accounts of what happened differ, some say both I.R.A. men attempted to fight their way out but were killed in the ensuing battle. Other accounts state that both men were unarmed and were shot while trying to escape. Evidence given at the inquest by Doctors Collins and Linehan stated that Clancy died from shock and haemorrhage caused by a severe wound in his back which was 9 inches long and 2 inches deep inflicted, they believed, by some sharp instrument such as a bayonet. O’Connell died from shock and injury to the brain probably caused by a bullet. They found a hole about 4 inches long in the temporal area. Bones were broken and the brain was slightly injured. The injury would be such as would be caused by a ricocheted or flat nosed bullet. The Military suspected both men of being involved in an incident where a Military plane had made a forced landing about four miles south of Kanturk on the 14th of August 1920, the local I.R.A. attempted to ambush the guard on the plane they were spotted by a sentry, the sentry was shot dead but this raised the alarm and the ambush plans were abandoned.
After the killing of RIC Sergeant Maunsell at Macroom County Cork on Saturday 21, August 1920 a lorry load of police, including the RIC county inspector drove to Macroom from Bandon the next morning to investigate the incident. They passed through the village of Lissarda on the way. After this was noted a group of local volunteers made preparations to engage them on their return. As the police drove through Lissarda on their return journey they were forced to stop by a cart which had been positioned across the main road. They were ordered to surrender but immediately opened fire on the ambushers. In the ensuing gun battle a number of the RIC were wounded with Sergeant Runane being the most serious. The I.R.A. ambush party lost Michael Galvin, quartermaster of 'H' Company, who was shot through the head while leading the attack. Father of two Galvin was a brother of Edward (Ned) Galvin who later became Bishop of the Maynooth Mission to China.
On August the 29th 1920 Lieutenant Tim Fitzgerald was Killed when a party of I.R.A. Volunteers led by Sean Hales were attempting to ambush a joint British Army RIC patrol at Brinny County Cork when the ambush party were discovered and attacked be a British Army patrol from the Essex Regiment. During the ensuing gun battle Fitzgerald who was from Gaggin Bandon was killed.
On the 2nd of September 1920 Patrick Seery of Cloneyhigue, Ballinafore County Westmeath died at the Mater Hospital in Dublin from wounds received during an attack on the R.I.C. Barracks at Clara, County Offaly on the 2nd of June 1920 during which he received a bullet wound to the Chest. He was Lieutenant with the Tyrrellspass Company 3rd Battalion 1st Offaly Brigade I.R.A. He was born in 1889 and worked as a farm labourer.
The above memorial is at Stackstown Golf club Dublin.
On the 13th of September 1920 Sean Doyle was shot dead in the Dublin Mountains in the area of Power’s Wood. Doyle was part of a gathering of young men numbering between 40 and 50, a group of plain clothes R.I.C. approached and arrested up to forty of the men. It was reported that some of the young men attempted to flee the scene and shots were fired. Doyle was hit and died from a bullet wound to the lung. Doyle was 19 years old and lived at Emmet Road, Inchicore, Dublin. He was the son of Mr. P. S. Doyle T.C. Doyle was a member of the 4th Battalion Engineers I.R.A.
Shortly after midnight on Monday the 20th of September 1920 two men were shot dead at Balbriggan following the shooting of two R.I.C. men in a Public house. Head Constable Peter Burke was shot dead and his brother Sergeant Michael Burke injured. A large force of uniformed men numbering between 100 and 150 entered the town and immediately set about setting fire to building. Around 30 homes and business premises were destroyed and many of the residents were forces from their homes at bayonet point. The two men killed were:
On the 22nd of September 1920 I.R.A. Volunteer Patrick Lehane died in a fire in Flanagans’ shop in Ennistymon, The R.I.C. and Auxiliaries had rampaged through the town looting and burning buildings after six of their comrades were killed in an ambush at Rineen. Patrick Lehane had played an active part in the ambush, his father Dan Lehane was shot dead by a mixed patrol of British Army and R.I.C. when he refused to answer questions about his son’s whereabouts.
Lieutenant John Connolly of the Bandon County Cork Company was picked up by Soldiers from the Essex Regiment in a round up of I.R.A. Suspects in Kilbrittain, a few weeks later his body was found in a park near Bandon, he was from Shannon Street Bandon.
Jeremiah Herlihy, Volunteer with the 1st Cork Brigade died from wounds received in an attack on Crown Forces at Waterfall, County Cork on the 4th October 1920. He was born in 1887 and employed as a Farm Labourer. He died in Mosaplier Hospital, Cork.
On the 12th of October 1920 five I.R.A. men were killed and nine injured when a house which was being used as a bomb making factory exploded. The house which was abandoned for many years was on the Colclough Estate at St Kieran's, Saltmills, County Wexford. The bombs being made were explosives packed into six-inch pipes which when ready were shipped to Dublin in butter crates. In a letter dated the 25th of April 1924 from Commandant James O'Hanrahan he states "according to information...the explosion was caused by a lighted candle coming into contact with some of the material they were using...the affair was purely accidental". The five men killed were:
The nine injured men were:
All surviving men were arrested and detained in Wexford Military Hospital, after they were all sentenced to long terms in prison and deported to Dartmoor in England.
I.R.A. Captain Matthew Furlong died from wound he received while testing a trench mortar in Dunboyne County Meath. He was taken to the Mater Hospital Dublin where he died on the 15th of October. He was 28 years old and had fought during the Easter Rising. He had served his apprenticeship in a Wexford engineering company and had gone to work in Dublin in 1911. His brother Joseph, who also fought in the Rising, was present when Matthew was killed.
On the 17th of October 1920 Michael ‘Mick’ Fitzgerald died on hunger strike. He had been charged with the murder of Private William Jones of the 2nd Battalion The Kings Shropshire Light Infantry on the 7th of September 1920. The shooting took place when Fitzgerald as part of an I.R.A. unit ambushed and disarmed a party of Soldiers on their way to church at the Wesleyan Church Fermoy County Cork. Unable to find a jury the case was put back several times, Fitzgerald went on hunger strike in order to gain his freedom. The hunger strike lasted sixty seven days. Fitzgerald joined the Irish Volunteers in Fermoy in 1914 and had reached the rank of Officer Commanding of the 4th Battalion Cork 2nd Brigade.
On Saturday the 16th of October 1920 two men died as a result of wounds received during a raid on Banba Hall, Rutland Square, Dublin. Police had received a tip off that the gunmen responsible for the killing of Sergeant Roache on Ormond Quay would be present at the concert being held in Banba Hall that evening.
Henry Kelly, Volunteer, D Company, 2nd Battalion, 1st Dublin Brigade, IRA. He was a native of Collooney County Sligo. He was a member of a unit preparing to go out to ambush crown forces when the hall was raided, the rest of the unit managed to escape but as Kelly ran out the back door he was shot. It was claimed that he was first apprehended by Crown Forces then put up against the wall and shot but all contemporary reports by military and civilian witnesses state that he ran from the hall shouting ‘up the Rebels.’ He was seriously wounded and taken to hospital when he died on the next day. A revolver with one discharged round was found in his possession. A civilian, Michael O’Rorke (O’Rourke) was shot in the same incident.
Joseph Murphy, Volunteer, H Company, 2nd Battalion, 1st Cork Brigade, IRA died in Cork Gaol after taking part in a hunger strike, he was on hunger strike for 76 days. He was born in 1897, he was arrested on the 15thof July 1920 by British forces and that he was detained at Cork Gaol where on the 12th of August 1920 he went on hunger strike.
On the 26th of October 1920 I.R.A. Commandant Philip Breen of Main Street, Tempo, County Fermanagh was killed during an attack on Tempo R.I.C. barracks. Breen was a Commandant of the 4th (Tempo) Battalion, 5th Northern Division, Fermanagh Brigade. He was 27 years old and employed as a farm worker at the time of his death.
On Thursday the 28th of October 1920 Michael Scanlan died from wounds received the previous day when he was shot by Crown Forces at Thomas Street, Limerick. He had been on the run for some time and was a wanted man, it was reported that he had been apprehended by Crown Forces and was shot when he tried to escape. He was taken to the Military Hospital at New Barracks Limerick he had been shot through the throat severing his wind-pipe and also received a bullet wound to his lower back. He was employed as a school teacher. He was a member of the East Limerick Brigade, IRA, his rank is variously given as Officer Commanding/Commandant/Captain. He was a member of the IRB (Irish Republican Brotherhood) from 1909 and that he was appointed Commandant by Ernie O'Malley in 1920 at Bruree, County Limerick.
Kevin Barry was executed in Mountjoy Gaol on the 1st of November 1920, he was the first Republican to be executed since the execution of the 1916 Leaders. Barry was executed for his part in the ambush of British Soldiers of the Duke of Wellington Regiment as they collected the bread rations from a bakery on Church Street Dublin. 3 British soldiers died in the ambush and although much was made of Barry’s young age when he was hanged, Barry was 18 years old, one of the British Soldiers was only 15 years old.
On Tuesday the 2nd of November 1920 IRA Volunteer James (Seamus) Finn was shot dead in an ambush at Auburn, Glasson, County Westmeath. The IRA ambushed two RIC lorries at Auburn at about 9.30am, shots were exchanged during which Finn was fatally wounded he was from Kileenbrack, Ballymore, Co.Westmeath. Finn was 21 years old and unmarried. RIC Constable Sydney Larkin died in the same ambush.
On Wednesday the 10th of November Frank Hoffman, 21 years old, from Farmer’s Bridge, Tralee County Kerry was killed by Crown Forces. He was near his home when stopped by Crown Forces and asked his name, when he replied he was placed against a fence and bayoneted and shot to death. He was a member of the local IRA unit and known locally as a Sinn Fein supporter. He was a protestant and worked on the family farm. At his funeral several mourners were beaten with rifles. On the same day several farm houses and hay and corn crops were burned by Crown Forces in reprisal for the shooting of two policemen in a train at Ballybrack.
Two I.R.A. Volunteers were killed at the Ballydwyer Creamery at Ballymacelligott near Tralee County Kerry. Some members of the Ballymacelligott I.R.A. were near the creamery when a large force of Black and Tans approached, as the I.R.A. men fled fire was opened and two of the I.R.A. men were killed, the two were
Two other I.R.A. men were wounded, they were Jack McEllistrim and Tim Walsh.
On the 16th of November 1920 members of G Company of the Auxiliaries executed three Volunteers of the Clare I.R.A. and a civilian caretaker, the Auxiliaries accused the caretaker of sheltering the I.R.A. Volunteers and being an I.R.A. Volunteer. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Andrews the Auxiliaries surrounded Williamstown House capturing the three Volunteers and the caretaker, the four men were taken to the Lakeside Hotel Killaloe were the were tortured and beaten for several hours, they were then taken to the Killaloe Ballina Bridge were the four men were shot dead. The men, pictured left to right above were:
On Thursday the 18th of November following the shooting of RIC Sergeant James O'Donoghue on White Street, Cork, a group of armed uniformed men went on the rampage killing three people. Evidence given at the inquests as to the identity of the armed men was unclear, some at the inquests gave evidence that it was men in Army uniform and some stated Police uniform and some a mix of Army and Police, later evidence showed the group came from Tuckey Street Barracks which would indicate either Police or Black and Tans. The three killed were:
The three I.R.A. men that shot Sergeant James O'Donoghue were identified as Charlie O'Brien, Willie Joe O'Brien and Justin O'Connor. The reprisals were all directed at know I.R.A. men,
Eugene O’Connell and Patrick Hanley were both buried together in the Republican Plot in Saint Finbar’s Cemetery. The coffin of Patrick Hanley was shouldered by his Fianna comrades while six Fianna members in uniform formed a guard of honour to accompany the coffin. A large number of the different companies of Fianna Eireann from Cork and surrounding areas formed up on Prospect Row and saluted the coffin as it passed. Eugene O’Connell burial was attended by a large number of his comrades from his time in the British Army.
At the requiem mass held in Cork Cathedral for James Coleman after the prayers of the congregation for the deceased the Priest read a Military Order which had been served on the clergy of the Cathedral forbidding and military formations and limiting the mourners to 100. As the mourners left the Cathedral a large force of soldiers in two lorries and an armoured car were situated on the corner of Shandon Street. After the Military realised all the mourners were relatives or business associates of Mr. Coleman they dispersed.
On the evening of Sunday the 21st of November 1920 Peadar Clancy and Richard McKee were both killed in Dublin Castle. The two were arrested after the Bloody Sunday shooting which had occurred earlier that day. The British alleged they were shot while attempting to escape and the IRA alleged they were tortured by the British in an attempt to learn the names of those involved in the Bloody Sunday Shootings.
Michael Moran Commander of the Tuam County Galway Battalion of the IRA was shot dead on the 24th of November 1920. The circumstances of his death were investigated by a Military Court of Inquiry held at Galway. The Inquiry heard that Moran had attempted to escape Police custody, he was being held at Earl’s Island Police Barrack. No details of the evidence given to the jury was available only the verdict of the jury was published, the jury found The Court, having carefully considered the evidence, are of the opinion that the deceased died from shock and haemorrhage following a gunshot in the left temple inflicted by the Police escort in the course of duty. The court is also of the opinion that the escort was fully justified in firing upon the deceased.
Moran was 27 years old and was the eldest of a family of two sons and a daughter. He lived with his widowed mother on a farm to miles from Tuam on the Mountbellew Road. Moran was described locally as a man of fine physique who held strong political views. He became a prominent Volunteer after the 1916 Rising and was a prominent figure in the Volunteer movement in North Galway.
Thomas Doyle, Volunteer, C Company, 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, IRA and Irish Volunteers, he had also served with Fianna Eireann from 1910 to 1917. On Monday the 25th of November 1920 Thomas Doyle was shot dead by the military in the back-yard of his home in Dolphin’s Barn Dublin. A military witness told the inquiry that a party of military had gone to the house to arrest two men, when they arrived they found the door leading to the yard from the kitchen open. Witness stated that he remained on guard at the kitchen door while other went to search the area, witness stated that after a few minutes he observed two men climbing over the wall, he went to warn the other in the military party in the house that the two men were approaching. When witness returned to the yard one of the men emerged from the shadows. Witness challenged the man shouting ‘hands up’ the man continued towards him and witness claimed he fired in self-defence.
On the 26th of November 1920 brothers Harry and Patrick Loughnane were arrested by Auxiliary R.I.C. Police while working on the family farm in Shanaglish, Kinvara County Galway. Ten days after their arrest their bodies were found in a muddy pond near Ardrahan. Patrick Loughnane was 29 years old and was a local IRA leader and Sinn Féin secretary, he was also active in the local GAA. Harry was 22 years old was president of the local Sinn Féin club and a goalkeeper with Beagh hurling club.
After their bodies were discovered they were examined by a local doctor. They were badly burnt and it was found that the letters ‘I.V.’ were cut into the charred flesh in several places, two of Harry’s fingers were missing and his right arm which was broken completely across the shoulder was hanging off. Both of Pat’s legs and wrists were broken. The doctor thought it possible that hand grenades had been put into their mouths and exploded.
One of the biggest battles between Crown Forces and the I.R.A. took place at Kilmichael County Cork in October 1920. Over 100 I.R.A. Volunteers engaged a large force of British Army R.I.C. and black and Tans. Three I.R.A. men were killed during the fighting, they were:
On December 3rd 1920 three members of the I.R.A. were killed in a trap laid by the Essex Regiment. The I.R.A. had captured two Essex Regiment soldiers who alleged they were attempting to desert the British Army and wanted safe passage to England. One of the two soldiers informed the I.R.A. that his brother, a Serjeant in Bandon Barracks, also wished to desert and would be willing to supply information on Bandon barracks to the I.R.A. A meeting with the Serjeant was arranged but this turned out to be a trap and when the three I.R.A. men showed up for the meeting they were ambushed and shot dead on Laurel Walk Bandon County Cork. The three I.R.A. men were:
Joseph (Joe) Begley aged 24. Volunteer, F (Bandon) Company, 3rd Cork Brigade. He was an Employee, Bandon Hosiery Factory.
Known I.R.A. activist Thomas Hand was shot dead when a group of Black and Tans raided his home. Hand did not usually sleep at his home in Baltrasna, Skerries, County Dublin, but was home the night the Black and Tans raided. The body of Thomas Hand was found in the back yard of his home after the Black and Tan raid.
I.R.A. Lieutenant Michael McClean of Lowertown Schull was captured and killed by soldiers of the Essex Regiment on the 8th of December 1920. McClean was involved in an ambush at Gaggin County Cork which went wrong when one of the lorries of British Soldiers they were attempting to ambush escaped the ambush and doubled backed capturing McClean.
On the night of the 12th of December 1920 I.R.A. Volunteer William Canning was shot dead during an I.R.A. operation against the police under the command of Frank Aiken. The ambush took place at Egyptian Arch, Newry, County Down his body was recovered from the railway line next to Newry town. Canning was born on the 7th of February 1902. He was employed as a Draper's assistant at Cahill Brothers, Newry, County Down.
On the night of Sunday the 12th of December 1920 Lieutenant Jerh Delany was killed by Crown Forces at his home in Dublin Hill County Cork, his brother Con Delany who was fatally wounded on the same night died from his wounds on the 18th of December 1920. Witnesses told of a large group of armed men gathering outside the Delany household, only one man was reported to have entered the house. The two I.R.A. Volunteers were shot by Auxiliaries after an attack on a lorry carrying Auxiliaries was attacked at Dillon’s Cross in which one Auxiliary was killed. The brother’s uncle was also shot it the shoulder in the same incident.
John Hickie died from a gunshot wound to the abdomen on the 14th of December 1920, he had received the wound two days earlier on the 12th of December while on manoeuvres near Merrion Gates Railway crossing. Little is known as to how Hickey was wounded except reports that local people found Hickie wounded on the railway track at about 7pm after hearing gun shots. Hickie was taken to Baggot Street hospital where he died. No British Army activity took place in the area on the night of the shooting and it is suspected that Hickie was shot accidentally either by himself or another member of the unit. He lived at Cross Avenue Dun Laoghaire and was a member of the local I.R.A. Active Service Unit. John Hickie’s grave is marked by a wooden cross.
On December 18th, 1920, two I.R.A. men, William Delaney and Captain James J. Looby, were shot by British forces near Kilfeacle, Tipperary. They were both members of D Company, 2nd, Battalion, 3rd Tipperary Brigade. They were captured near Dualla, on December 17th, 1920, and taken to Cashel R.I.C. barracks by the police. The following day they were forcibly taken from police custody by the military and were taken to Tipperary military barracks where they were allegedly tortured. On the evening of the 18th, they were tied to a gun carriage and on the way back to Cashel they were killed near Kilfeacle, while still tied to the gun carriage. Details of how they were killed differ in that some accounts say they were shot and some say they were bayoneted.
The day after the death of James J. Looby his brother I.R.A. Adjutant Lawrence Looby was shot dead at Ballysheehan on the Dublin Road. He was Adjutant of D Company, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Tipperary Brigade. Lawrence was playing cards with his cousins the Flanagan’s at their house in Ballysheehan, while there the house was raided, Lawrence was taken outside and shot. Lawrence Looby was 19 years old. Their father, Lawrence Senior, worked at Ballyowen House, Cashel, an estate managed by the late Pierse McCann T.D. who died in Gloucester Gaol. James Looby was 23 years old and married with two children.
On the 22nd of December 1920 I.R.A. Volunteer Michael McNamara was shot by the Black and Tans, McNamara had been arrested on the 18th of December while sleeping at Denis Reidy’s house in Doonbeg along with I.R.A. Volunteer William Shanahan. Both men were taken to the R.I.C. Barracks at Kilrush, they were beaten and tortured while being interrogated. On the 22nd of December both men were put on a Crossley Tender and driven in the direction of Ennis. At Darragh between Kildysart and Ennis the Tender stopped and McNamara was told he was free to go, as he walked away from the Tender he was shot dead.
William Shanahan was taken to Ennis Jail where his interrogation continued. While being taken to the toilet by Provost Sergeant David Finlay Shanahan was shot in the head at point blank range by Finlay.
On the 25th of December 1920 two I.RA. Volunteers were shot dead by Crown Forces at Ballydwyer, County Kerry. Both men went to visit to the home of local creamery manager John Byrne when the house was raided, both men, known to be active members of the I.R.A. were shot dead by Major McKennon. Both men went to the Byrne household to visit Mrs. Byrne whose husband John was on the run and it was believed the house was under surveillance. The bodies of the men were dragged into the yard of the adjoining creamery and set on fire. The Ballydwyer creamery was the scene of what was known as the Battle of Tralee which took place on the 12th of November 1920 in which two I.R.A. Volunteers, John McMahon and Paddy Herlihy, were killed in action. The two men were:
On the night of Sunday the 26th of December 1920 a dance was held at Cahirguillamore House Limerick, the owner of the house Viscount O’Grady was away at the time. The dance was raided by a joint force of Military and Police including Black and Tans. It was believed the dance was held to raise funds for the local I.R.A. ‘Flying Column’ by Bruff Battalion I.R.A., sentries was posted by the I.R.A. but a large party of Military surprised the sentries. During the exchange of fire and subsequent interrogation of those in the house five I.R.A. Volunteers died.
Two Policemen were also killed in the incident. Constable Alfred C Hogsden and Constable John Reid.
On the 26th of December 1920 Captain James Hickey, A Company, 4th Battalion, 3rd Tipperary Brigade was killed while in the custody of Crown Forces. He was arrested by a military patrol in Henry Street Limerick on the 21st of December. While being transferred from the cells to the hospital wing at Limerick Military Barracks he was bayonetted and shot to death in the Barrack Square. He was born in 1894, he was a native of Ballinattin, Knocknagoshel, County Kerry and was at the time of his arrest employed as a Draper’s Assistant in Limerick. He joined the I.R.A. in 1917.
On the 28th of December 1920 I.R.A. Captain Timothy Madigan was shot dead by the R.I.C. at his home Clashganniff House, Shanagolden County Limerick, he was 23 years old. The R.I.C. arrived in the Shanagolden area and recognising Madigan as an on the run I.R.A. man ordered him to stop, Madigan attempted to flee, the R.I.C. claimed they called out several warning and when he failed to stop two shots were fired, he died soon after from wound received.
Paddy Hogan, Commandant of 2nd Battalion, Third Tipperary Brigade, was shot by British Forces when they raided a house near New Inn County Tipperary. Hogan was at the Dagg household with other members of D Company when the house was surrounded by British Forces, he charged the advancing British Forces firing his gun and was shot as he attacked.
On Saturday the 1st of January 1921 two men were shot by the military at Ballylanders in the Bruff district of County Limerick. The two men were wanted by the authorities and on seeing a military car approaching them they fled. The two wanted men were:
On the 17th of January 1921 I.R.A. Volunteers Thomas O’Brien was shot dead at Richardstown, County Waterford.
Joseph Tormey and Patrick Sloane were shot dead in Ballykinlar Camp, County Down on the 17th of January 1921, both men were standing about 20 yards from the wire fence sheltering from the wind when a sentry fired at them, no reason or explanation was given as to why the sentry fired. 2ndLieutenant Joseph Tormey was born in 1901, he was employed by the Midland Great Western Railway but was forced to give up work and go on the run. He was with the Moate Company, Athlone Brigade. Patrick Slone was from Moate, County Westmeath. He was married and a Volunteer with B Company, Athlone Brigade.
On the evening of Tuesday the 18th of January 1921 Thomas Collins was shot dead by Crown Forces at Keelkill, County Galway. Earlier that evening a party of Auxiliaries were ambushed at Headford, several being injured. In a search for the ambushers Collins was arrested and it was alleged by Crown Forces he was shot while trying to escape. Thomas Collins was 21 years old and had served joined the Irish Volunteers in 1918, at the time of his death he was a Volunteer with the Headford Battalion, North Galway Brigade. His brother Herbert Collins was executed by the Free State on the 20th of January 1923 at Custume Barracks, Athlone, County Westmeath he had been charged with being in possession, without proper authority, of one bandolier and fifty rounds of ammunition
On the 19th of January 1921 Volunteer Denis Hegarty was killed by British Forces at Barry’s Hall Timoleague County Cork, he was from Courtmacsherry.
On Friday the 21st of January 1921 I.R.A. Volunteer Michael Magee was mortally wounded when taking part in an ambush at Drumcondra Bridge Dublin. A patrol of Auxiliary police arrived during the ambush and the I.R.A. were forced to retreat, Magee, who was from Arbour Hill Dublin, received bullet wounds to the legs and lower abdomen and was taken prisoner, loaded into a Crossley Tender and ended up in King George V Hospital (now St. Bricin's), where he died on Saturday morning 22 January 1921. The official cause of death was "Shock and Haemorrhage from gunshot wounds to the legs and lower abdomen".
Martin McEvoy, Volunteer, C Company, 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, I.R.A., he died from pneumonia and influenza which he suffered as a direct result of a gunshot wound he received in an exchange with British forces on 27 February 1921 at or near Fowler Hall, Parnell Street, Dublin. He was born in 1891 and was employed as a labourer with the Anglo-American Oil Company, North Wall.
On the 24th of January 1921 Volunteer Daniel O‘Reilly was killed when three sections of the 3rd West Cork brigade entered Bandon with the intention of attacking the R.I.C. and Military barracks. During the attack O’Reilly who was from Granassig Kilbrittain was killed.
Patrick Thornton was a member of the Kimmage Garrison and took part in the fighting during Easter week, on Easter Monday evening he was sent from Liberty Hall to Fairview. While at Fairview he was injured to the head while taking prisoners and subsequently developed haemorrhages. He was taken to Richmond Barracks after the surrender and held for some days before being released due to his age, he 15 years old. Due to his head injuries he spent several spells in hospitals over the next three years. He was an active member of the I.R.A. In February 1921 he was taken from the Boyne Cinema in Drogheda where he worked as a manager and beaten to death by the Black and Tans, he was found dying in Market Square, he succumbed to his injuries that night. He was buried in Saint Peter’s Cemetery Drogheda.
On Tuesday the 1st of February 1921 Cornelius Murphy of Rathmore County Kerry was executed for having a revolver and seven rounds of ammunition. He was tried at a military court in Cork. Murphy was convicted under Martial Law regulations. It was the first cases of a convicted man being executed in a case were the convicted man had not been charged with having fired on Crown forces, and also the first case where the execution was carried out before the announcement of the sentence was given to the public.
While searching Clonmacnoise graveyard Crown Forces found the body of James Tormey. James Tormey had been killed in action on the 2nd of February 1921 while fighting British Forces at Cornafulla, County Roscommon and his body secretly buried in Clonmacnoise graveyard, a brass plate on the coffin was engraved ‘James Tormey killed in action February 2nd 1921’. The body was removed to Custume Barracks Athlone where an inquest was held, the body was released to his parents and he was buried in Mount-Temple cemetery in the family plot. He was from a family of 10 boys and 1 girl, six of the boys were members of the I.R.A. and the family home was used to store arms during the War of Independence. One of the sons, David, was captured by the Black and tans on the 14th of February 1921 and was almost beaten to death, his father stated his son was saved from death by the intervention of Inspector Cowley of the R.I.C. Brigadier (Colonel) James Tormey was born in 1899 and served with the Athlone Brigade, 1st Midland Division, I.R.A. He was from Moate, County Westmeath. He was born in 1899 and had been a member of the I.R.A. since before 1918. His brother James Tormey was shot dead in Ballykinlar Camp, County Down on the 17th of January 1921.
On the 4th of February 1921 I.R.A. Lieutenant Patrick Crowley was shot dead during a round-up of I.R.A. suspects by the Black and Tans at Maryboro Timoleague County Cork, Crowley from Timoleague was a long serving I.R.A. veteran of Rathclarin, Newcestown and Tooreen ambushes.
On the 6th of February 1921 four I.R.A. men were drowned when crossing Galway Bay from Moynis to Roundstone to attend a Battalion meeting, they were crossing the bay in a light boat when caught in a violent storm of the coast of Inishlaken. The storm drove the boat onto the rocks and the four men were drowned.
On the 8th of February 1921 Robert Browne was shot by British Forces Knocksluagha, Knocknagoshel, County Kerry. He was a Volunteer with A Company, 7th Battalion, 2nd Kerry Brigade, I.R.A. He was employed as a shopkeeper at the family grocery shop. He was born in 1883. He had been arrested by Crown Forces in the Knocksluagha area, he body was found some distance away on the road side later that day. He was a brother of John Browne who was shot by Crown Forces on the 13th of April 1918 during a raid on the Gortatlea Police Hut.
On the 9th of February 1921 I.R.A. Captain John Moran was taken from his home in Drogheda and shot dead, his body was found along with the body of Alderman Thomas Halpin of Drogheda on the banks of the River Boyne. Moran was employed as a printer in Cahill’s of Drogheda. He was a native of Church Street Enniscorthy County Wexford, he was 38 years old. He was reported locally that Moran and Halpin were killed in reprisal for the killing of a man name Percival at Ballycanew.
On Wednesday the 9th of February two I.R.A. Volunteers were found, one dead the other fatally injured, in a field at Clonturk Park Drumcondra Dublin. The dying Volunteer told police they were removed from Dublin Castle by Auxiliaries and Soldiers to Clonturk Park and shot. Auxiliary Captain William L ‘Tiny’ King and two of his men were arrested by the Military and acquitted at their court-martial on the 15th of April. The two I.R.A. Volunteers were:
On the 15th of February 1921 Patrick Flynn, Volunteer, H Company, 5th Battalion, 4th Cork Brigade, Óglaigh na hÉireann/IRA was killed at Mourne Abbey, Mallow, County Cork in an exchange of fire with British Forces. He had served with Cork brigade from about 1917.
On the 15th of February 1921 a planned ambush by the I.R.A. of a train carrying British Troops went wrong resulting in the death of three I.R.A. men and ten civilians. The plan was to ambush the train when it stopped at Upton station, the station staff were detained by the I.R.A. as they waited for the train to arrive. The train held about fifty soldiers of the Essex Regiment. The soldiers were dispersed along the entire train rather than concentrated in the central carriage as the I.R.A. believed, as a result the civilian causalities were high and the soldiers in a better position to repel the attackers. The three dead I.R.A. men were:
Another I.R.A. man Daniel (Dan) O’Mahony was wounded in the attack and died some years later as a result of his injuries. The bodies of Sean Phelan, Batt Falvey and Pat O'Sullivan were laid to rest in the Republican plot at St Finbarr's cemetery in Cork.
Four IRA men were cutting a trench in the road at Crois na Leanbh, in the Kilbrittain Company area County Cork, when they were taken unawares by a patrol of the Essex Regiment. The four men to die were
Their bodies were found on the morning of February 16, 1921, beside the unfinished cutting. Two had been armed with rifles, as there had been strict orders that in such cutting operations two should stand guard while the other two worked on the road.
In an Ambush at Clonmult, Midleton, County Cork on the 20th of February 1921 twelve I.R.A. Volunteers were killed and another two later executed. The I.R.A. were occupying a farm house when they were surrounded by a force of British Army (Hampshire Regiment), Royal Irish Constabulary Policeman and Auxiliaries. The fourteen dead men were:
James Peter Ahern
The two men executed were:
On the 27th of February 1921 Joseph Taylor of Glencar, Caragh Lake, County Kerry, he was a Captain with the 6th Battalion, 2nd Kerry Brigade I.R.A. and had served with the 6th Battalion, 2nd Kerry since about 1916. He was arrested at his home in the early hours of Sunday morning by Crown Forces, while escorting him to Killorglin Barracks another three local men who the Crown Forces met on the road were also arrested. Shortly after he was arrested locals reported hearing considerable noise and shouting followed by three shots, shortly after the three shots were heard relatives of Joseph Taylor were informed he had been shot while attempting to escape. He was carried by Crown Forces on a door to the nearest house where he was attended by Doctor Ansitar who had been staying at the Glencar Hotel, he was also treated by Doctor Dodd of Killorglin. Father Byrnes P.P. Glenheigh, administered the last rites and he died shortly after from blood loss due to a large wound to the right thigh. Joseph Taylor had been on the run for some time and had been sought by Crown Forces at many places around Kerry. He worked for the post office as a postman up to about 1917 but lost his employment due to his Volunteer activities. His brother James Taylor was killed while serving with the Anti-Treaty I.R.A. on the 8th of March 1923.
On Monday the 28th of March 1921 six I.R.A. men were executed at Victoria (now Collins) Barracks, Cork. Five of the executed were captured at an attempted ambush at Dripsey on the 28th of January 1921. Cannon O’Sullivan, one of the Chaplains who ministered to the six men said ‘as the prisoners were called out in twos to be shot they rose with absolute calmness, took leave of their companions, and solemnly blessed each other.’ The five men had been found guilty by Court Martial and were sentenced to death, three other accused of being involved in the ambush and tried by the same court Jerimiah Callaghan, Eugene Langtry and Denis Sheehan were found not guilty. A memorial was erected to the five men at the ambush site.
On the 21st of March 1921 Mrs Mary Lindsay and her butler James Clarke were executed by the I.R.A. for supplying information to the British Army warning them of the ambush at Dripsey.
On Tuesday the 1st of March 1921 Thomas Looby, a farmer’s son from Ardvillane, was shot dead in a field near Kilross County Tipperary. The Military surprised a part of men engaged in military type drilling in a field. The men scattered to avoid being surrounded by the Military during which shots were fire. Thomas Looby was killed and two other men, John Hayes aged 23 a labourer from Knockarden was shot in the windpipe and Con Power aged 26 was shot in the thigh. After the incident the Military recovered 15 rifles, 3 shotguns and plans for an ambush.
Volunteer Thomas Lee B Company, 1st Battalion, 3rd Tipperary Brigade, was shot dead by a British Soldier while serving with one of the 3rd Tipperary Brigade's Flying Columns, while staying in a house near Fethard . The house was raided and while attempting to escape Lee was shot and mortally wounded. He was taken to the local Barracks where he later died from his wounds.
During an ambush on the 14th of March 1921 Leo Patrick Fitzgerald was killed. Fitzgerald was part of an IRA unit keeping guard over a meeting attended by Sean McBride at Saint Andrews Club, 144 Brunswick Street Dublin City. Another I.R.A. Volunteer David Kelly aged 41 (I.R.A. Manager of Sinn Fein Bank and brother of Alderman Thomas Kelly Sinn Fein M.P. for College Green.) was also killed in the ambush along with 2 policemen and three civilians.
On the 9th of March 1921 A Military Court of Inquiry held in lieu of an Inquest heard the James O’Keefe was killed while acting as a sentry for an IRA Road-Trenching Active Service Unit. A military officer gave evidence that he was in charge of a patrol near Anner Bridge two miles east of Clonmel County Tipperary when they came across a man wearing a pink woman’s hat, the man was acting as a sentry for the Road-Trenchers, in the ensuing exchange of fire James O’Keefe was shot.
On the 10th of March 1921 four I.R.A. Volunteers were killed when, along with two other Volunteers who managed to escape, the house they were sheltering in was surrounded by a large troop of British Forces. The incident happened in the Boggeragh Mountains near Nadd, Banteer, County Cork. All were members of the Mallow Column. The four dead Volunteers were:
On March 11th 1921 at Selton Hill, Gorvagh, Mohill, County Leitrim an Irish Republican Army flying column was ambushed by members of the Black and Tans. Six IRA men of the Leitrim Brigade died in the Ambush The Auxiliaries were based in the town of Mohill.
On the 14th of March 1921 six I.R.A. Volunteers were hanged at Mountjoy Jail. The six men were.
Moran Park in Dun Laoghaire is named after Patrick Moran. The park was recently renovated when the new library was built and a plaque erected to remember Patrick Moran was added.
The following four were tried by Field Court Martial in connection with the Drumcondra Ambush and charged with assembling near the Drumcondra Road on the 21st of January 1920 with firearms and explosives with intent to use them for levying war against the King, of conspiring to levy war, with loop-holing a wall for the purpose of ambushing Crown Forces, with participating in an attack on Crown Forces, Another man Dermott O’Sullivan was also charged with the above offences and carrying a revolver and ammunition, O’Sullivan had his death sentence commuted to penal servitude for life because of his age, he was 17 years old. The four who were hanged were,
Frank (Francis Xavier) Flood 30 Summerhill Parade Dublin. He was single and a Lieutenant in the H Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade IRA . Executed at 8am.
Patrick Doyle 1 St. Mary’s Place Dublin, was 29 years old, he worked as a carpenter and was married with three children, his wife gave birth to twins a few weeks before the execution, one of the twins died on the 12th of March 1921. He was a member of a member of F Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, IRA. Executed at 7am.
Thomas J Bryan, 14 Henrietta Street Dublin, was an electrician, he was married and 22 years old. Executed at 7am
Bernard Ryan 18 Royal Canal Terrace, Phibsborough Road, 20 years old. He was a member of F Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade I.R.A. Executed at 8am.
On the 19th of March 1921 the 3rd Cork Brigade of the I.R.A. ambushed a large convoy of British Army lorries at Crossbarry County Cork. The convoy was part of a larger force sent to the Ballymurphy area to locate the headquarters of the West Cork Brigade The Crown Forces strength for the operation was 1200 soldiers mainly made up of the Essex Regiment and a force of about 120 Auxiliaries, the I.R.A. column numbered a little over 100 men. Three I.R.A. men died in the fighting. The dead were:
It is reported that another I.R.A. Volunteer died some time later from wounds received at Crossbarry but I have been unable to find his name. Although it is widely reported that up to 39 British Soldiers were killed at Crossbarry, this number allegedly includes 5 Officers, I have only found 9 British Soldiers, the highest ranking is Second Lieutenant.
I.R.A. Brigadier Charles ‘Charlie’ Hurley was shot dead on the 19th of March 1921 at Ballinphellic Upton County Cork, he was born in Baurleigh Kilbrittan on the 19th of March 1892. Brigadier Hurley was in command of the Column that engaged Crown Forces at Crossbarry later that day, he was billeted overnight at a safe house a few miles from where the Column was billeted. The safe house was surrounded by British Troops and Brigadier Hurley died in a fierce gun battle as he tried to escape.
Two I.R.A. men and eight British Forces were killed in an ambush on a train at Headford Junction railway station, Tralee, County Kerry. A party of British soldiers travelling on the train which was guarded by a Vickers Machine Gun was attacked by about 30 I.R.A. men, there are a few different accounts of what happened but when all the shooting was over 8 British Soldiers of the 1stBattalion The Royal Fusiliers, three Civilians and two I.R.A. men were dead. The two I.R.A. men were:
Edmond Crawford from County Limerick was mortally wounded on the 21stof March 1921 when with a party of I.R.A. Volunteers he was surrounded by Crown Forces. The incident happened when Crawford and two other I.R.A. men Denis Howard and Bill Condon were escorting a prisoner named O'Gorman suspected of spying. He died on either the 23rd or 25th of March (both dates of death are recorded) Edmond Crawford, a farmer’s son, was born in 1897.
Edmond Crawford is buried in Knocklong County Limerick, the image above shows his coffin being carried from Kilmallock courthouse.
On the 23rd of March 1921 Daniel Crowley aged 22, William Deasy aged 20 and Daniel Murphy aged 24 were killed by Crown Forces at Ballycannon Clogheen County Cork.
On Wednesday the 23rd of March 1921 three Soldiers were killed and an R.I.C. Constable fatally wounded in an ambush at Scramogue near Strokestown County Roscommon, another three Black and Tans captured by the I.R.A. in the ambush were later killed. After the ambush the Crown Forces in Roscommon Town mounted a large scale operation to attempt to capture the ambushers. Eight lorries and a Whippet Tank were used. Several I.R.A. men involved in the ambush were picked up, Michael Mullooly an I.R.A. Volunteer was shot dead at his home by the R.I.C., it is believed the Michael Mullooly had not taken part in the ambush and may have been mistaken for his brother Patrick who did take part in the ambush.
On the 30th of March 1921 James McLoughlin, Company Officer, Active Service Unit (Flying Column), 2nd Tipperary Brigade, I.R.A. was shot dead by British Forces at Cormackstown, Thurles, County Tipperary. He was born in 1902 and was a student at the time of his death.
Sean (John) Finn born 1898 in Rathkeals County Limerick. Was a member of Fianna Eireann and served as Captain in the Irish Volunteers. He was killed when a flying column he was part of was attacked by the Black and Tans at Ballyhahill Athea area near Foynes in County Limerick.
On the 1st of April 1921 James Foley, Captain, 3rd Battalion, 1st Cork Brigade, IRA was accidentally shot and killed at Currahaly, Farran, County Cork. At the time of his death he was employed as a labourer and had served with the IRA since 1917.
John Corcoran Brigadier I.R.A. Born in 1890 died on the 1st of April 1921, aged about 31 years old when he died. He was killed when an I.R.A. unit unexpectedly met with a party of British Army and police at Crossard, Ballyhaunis, County Mayo. He had active with the Irish Volunteers and IRA from 1916, was arrested and interned.
On the 2nd of April 1921 John Morgan, Lieutenant, 2nd Company, Manchester Battalion, IRA was shot dead by British Police during an exchange of fire at 58 Erskine Street, Hulme, Manchester, England, when the Police attempted to raid an IRA meeting. He was born in 1899 and had served with the IRA from 1920. He had also served with the British Army in the Royal Engineers during the First World War from the 3rd of February 1916 to the 18th March 1919.
Christopher Reynolds Section Leader, E Company, 4th Battalion, 1stDublin Brigade. Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. was shot dead on the 1st of April 1921 by British Soldiers you had arrested him at his home in Rathfarnham Dublin. The military alleged that Reynolds had tried to escape when the tender they were travelling in broke down near Portobello Bridge, the soldiers dismounted the tender and posted guard around it, when the tender was restarted and the soldiers were getting back on to it Reynolds and another prisoner Bernard Nolan jumped from the tender and ran down the street, the soldiers fired on the fleeing prisoners, Reynolds was taken to King George V hospital were he was pronounced dead. Reynolds was aged 23 and worked as an official at the New Ireland Insurance Company. Bernard Nolan, aged 32, worked as a tobacconist’s assistant, Nolan was wounded in the right arm and leg. He was arrested by the British when they received information he and Nolan were members of and I.R.A. Active Service Unit which was involved in the Lucan Ambush in which an Police sergeant and head constable were killed.
Christopher Reynolds was buried in Saint Nahi’s Cemetery Dundrum County Dublin.
Lieutenant John (Sean) Brett Óglaigh na hÉireann/I.R.A. was accidently shot dead on the 4th of April 1921. He was from Mullinahone County Tipperary and was a member of the South Tipperary Active Service Unit. Brett was in a house with James Leahy, Brett had just finished cleaning and oiling an automatic revolver, he reloaded the gun putting a bullet in the breech and laid the gun on a small table. A young boy, a resident of the house, entered the room and pressed the trigger of the gun discharging the round in the breech, the bullet struck Brett, he died as a result of the bullet wound about half an hour later. Father Larkin of Windgap gave him the last rites. Brett had been a member of the I.R.A. in Dublin and was a player in the Tipperary team playing in Croke Park on Bloody Sunday. Michael Gibbs, a member of the Active Service Unit, constructed a makeshift coffin and Brett was buried at midnight in the Cemetery at Lamague. British Forces learned of the tragedy and shortly after visited several local cemeteries looking for fresh graves. Brett’s remains were discovered and disinterred by British Forces and reburied in a ploughed field belonging to the Maher’s of Cussane. Brett’s remains were reinterred in his native Mullinahone after the Truce.
The Irish Time reported on the discovery of the body of Vincent Fovargue found by a boy on the golf links at Ashford Middlesex. Fovargue had escaped from British Army custody in Ireland. It was believed that Fovargue had given information on the I.R.A. to the British and was allowed to escape in return for that information, he fled to England but was tracked down by the I.R.A. The body was found on the 2nd of April. Fovargue had been a member of the Dublin Brigade of the I.R.A. Fovargue lived with his mother and sister at Dunville Avenue Renelagh. He was employed at a tea merchant in Batchelor’s Walk Dublin as a clerk.
Initially it was believed that the body was that of Mr. J Doherty of Trinity Street Dublin but it later transpired that Fovargue had purchased a suit from Mr. Doherty whose name appeared on the suit. Fovargue was a former pupil of the O’Brien Institute Dublin (an orphanage in Dublin).
I.R.A. Volunteer Joseph O’Donoghue was killed at Janesboro Avenue (now O’Donoghue Avenue) Limerick City on the March 7th 1921 in what became known as ‘The Limerick Curfew Killings.’ He was a native of Ballincarrigy County Westmeath and had been in Limerick for about two years. He was killed on the same night Michael O’Callaghan and George Clancy were murdered.
The funeral of Michael Tolan after the Truce
On the 14th of April 1921 Michael Tolan, a Tailor, of Ballina County Mayo was arrested by the Black and Tans in a house in Mill Street. Michael Tolan, described in reports as a cripple, had deformed feet. Wearing a grey suit and no socks or shoes he was taken to the Police Barracks where he was severely beaten, when visited by friends some days later they reported in was in severe pain. He was eventually given a pair of socks and a friend, Miss O’Hara, brought him a dark green overcoat. It was believed by the local I.R.A. Michael Tolan had been detained in Galway Jail although relatives stated they were unaware of this. Some weeks after the arrest of Tolan a badly decomposed body was found in Shraheen Bog, the body was dressed in a dark green overcoat and items, including a tailor’s thimble, indicated it was the body of Michael Tolan. The body was buried in Leigue cemetery by Police as an unidentified person but it was obvious Police were well aware it was the body of Michael Tolan, at some time before the body was buried by Police the feet were removed using a blunt instrument in an effort to prevent the body being identified as that of Tolan. Soon after the Truce in July 1922 the body buried by Police as unidentified was exhumed and positively identified as that of Michael Tolan. Doctor Staunton, who first examined the body, stated that there was a bullet wound to the head and a bayonet wound in the side. After Requiem Mass at Ballina Cathedral Michael Tolan was buried in Leigue Cemetery, it was reported that the funeral was attended by several thousand people. The image is reported to that of the funeral of Tolan after the Truce.
On the 7th of April James Duffy, Section Leader, Active Service Unit (Flying Column), West Mayo Brigade, IRA was accidentally shot and killed near Cusheen, County Mayo.
On the 19th of April 1921 I.R.A. Captain Peter White suffered fatal injuries when he was hit in the side during an attack on the R.I.C. at Connor’s Public House in Balbriggan County Dublin, he died on the 20th of April from his wounds. During the attack R.I.C. Sergeant Stephen Kirwan was fatally wounded, Sergeant Kirwan died from his wounds on the 20th of April. White was about 32 years old at the time of his death and was employed as a labourer.
Thomas Traynor was hanged at Mountjoy Jail for his part in an ambush on Auxiliary Forces who were on their way to raid a meeting of the I.R.A. in Brunswick Street (now Pearse Street) Dublin on the 14th of March 1921. Two Auxiliary Policemen and five others were killed in the ambush. Traynor was a native of Tullow County Carlow and was 39 years old when executed. Traynor had fought with the Boland’s Mill garrison during the 1916 Rising.
Henry Clancy of 4 Garvey’s Range Limerick, I.R.A. Volunteer (Lieutenant), “C” Company, Limerick City Battalion, Mid Limerick Brigade died when as part of a group preparing for an ambush at Singland Railway Bridge they were surprized by a patrol of R.I.C., it was reported that the I.R.A. fired on the R.I.C. and then fled across fields, in the ensuing battle Clancy was shot dead and another I.R.A. Volunteer Thomas Keane, was captured, Keane was executed for his part in the attempted ambush on the 4th of June 1921, see below. . It was reported in the newspapers at the time that the ambush took place on Sunday the 1st and this date is also recorded in a grant application by Clancy’s family to the Irish Department of Defence, the date of Clancy’s death is recorded as the 3rd on his headstone.
On the 1st of May 1921 two IRA Volunteers were shot dead at a farm house near Gurthdrum County Tipperary. A police patrol was operating in the area after reports that a group of Sinn Feiners was gathering in the locality. As the Police approached the farm house three men were seen to leave, on of the men was in uniform. The Police opened fire, the fleeing men returned fire. The Police searched a large area around the farm house, no more rebels were found and the Police returned to the farm house where they found the bodies of the two men. The men were:
On Monday the 2nd of May 1921 Patrick Casey was executed at Cork Barracks. He was convicted of taking part in the Mitchelstown Ambush, he was tried, convicted and executed within 25 hours, and the execution was carried out before the sentence had been announced to the public. Casey was a Captain with the 5th Battalion Mid-Limerick Brigade I.R.A.
On the 23rd of April 1921 six I.R.A. men were shot dead by a mixed RIC and Black and Tan Patrol at a farm at Ballycannon, Clogheen, Cork. The six men were staining on the farm of Cornelius O’Keefe which was a regular ‘safe house’ where those on the run or on active service with a flying column could stay. At about 4 am on the morning of the 23rd the house was raided and the six men discovered sleeping in a barn on the farm. The six men were:
On the 2nd of May 1921 Thomas Howard, 2nd Lieutenant, Cush Company, East Limerick brigade was shot dead by British Forces who were carrying out a ‘rounding-up’ operation at Lackelly, County Limerick. He was born in 1897 and was employed as a farmer.
On the 4th of May 1921 a Volunteer with the Dun Laoghaire I.R.A. stationed at the naval base in Dun Laoghaire died as a result of an accident. Volunteer John Jenkins was cleaning his rifle when he accidentally discharged it resulting in a fatal bullet wound to the head. John Jenkins had served ten years in the British Army before returning to Ireland and joining the I.R.A.
John Jenkins lived at Saint Mary’s Cottages Monkstown and left a wife and six children. He was given a funeral with full military honours and many National newspapers reported on the large procession that followed the coffin as it was taken to Dean’s Grange Cemetery. The Procession included comrades from the Naval Base at Dun Laoghaire as well as other I.R.A. units as well as Fianna Scouts, ex-service men and a fife and drum band. John Jenkins was laid to rest in the Republican Plot.
On the 5th of May 1921 John Stokes was shot dead by British forces while scouting for the Active Service Unit (Flying Column) at Tullylease, Charleville, County Cork. He was a Volunteer with A Company, 4th Cork Brigade, 6th Battalion, IRA. He was born in 1903 and worked as a farm labourer. His brother Simon Stokes also fought during the War of Independence.
A Military Court of Inquiry was held in lieu of an Inquest at Cavan to investigate the circumstances of the death of John McCartney of 47 Norfolk Street Falls Road Belfast. The Court found that McCartney died as a result of gunshot wounds inflicted by Crown Forces in the execution of their duty McCartney being at the time in a state of armed insurrection against His Majesty.
I.R.A. Captain Frank Hurley was captured and shot by soldiers of the Essex Regiment in Bandon County Cork. He was from Laragh Bandon. He was the sister of Anna Hurley leader of the Bandon Cumann na mBan.
I.R.A. Lieutenant Con Murphy was shot dead by soldiers from the Essex Regiment at Cloundreen Kilbrittan. He was from Clachfluck Timoleague County Cork.
On Thursday the 12th of May 1921 three I.R.A. Volunteers were shot in a field near the crossroads near Knockanure County Kerry. There are differing versions as to how they died. The authorities claimed the men were part of an ambush consisting of about 100 Volunteers who ambushed an R.I.C. convoy at Kilmorna near Listowel. An I.R.A. Volunteer Con Dee stated that he was with the three I.R.A. men near the bridge at Gortaglanna when they were picked up by a mixed patrol of R.I.C. and Auxiliaries who beat and mistreated them before shooting the three men dead, Con Dee managed to escape. The three men were:
ON Monday the 16th of May 1921 Daniel O’Brien of Liscarroll, County Cork was executed at Cork Detention Barracks. He was found guilty by Drumhead* Court Martial of being in possession of a revolver and ammunition. In a statement before execution O’Brien stated that he was a soldier of the Irish Republican Army and expected the treatment of a captured soldier adding that if he captured an enemy soldier he would not shoot him. After he had received spiritual ministrations, O’Brien walked to the place of execution reciting prayers and unaccompanied, and met his death bravely.
* A drumhead court-martial is a court-martial held in the field to hear urgent charges of offences committed in action. The term is said to originate from the use of a drumhead as an improvised writing table.
During reprisals for the killing and wounding of several British Soldiers, Black and Tans and R.I.C. men in Midleton County Cork on the 14th of May soldiers of the Cameron Highlanders picked up three local I.R.A. men, the three men’s bullet riddled bodies were later found in the district. The three men were:
On Wednesday the 18th of May 1921 I.R. A. Volunteer John Quinn was shot dead by Crown Forces near Tubrid County Tipperary. Quinn was part of a group of I.R.A. Volunteers who were fleeing Crown Forces after the abduction and killing of Constable Mead R.I.C.in Ballyseedy County Kerry. Quinn had been on the run for some time and was fatally wounded when caught by Crown Forces and died later in hospital. Another I.R.A. Volunteer, Patrick Walsh was seriously injured in the same incident.
On Thursday the 19th of May a force of between forty and sixty I.R.A. Volunteers ambushed a patrol of two Tenders and a Ford car at Kilmeena between Westport and Newport County Mayo. The Ford car leading the patrol was fired on and Head-Constable Potter was seriously wounded and Constable Harry Beckett 80290 born in Lancashire England in 1900 killed. A ditch which ran at an angle to the road prevented the I.R.A. from seeing the two Tenders which were some distance behind the car. The occupants of the Tenders dismounted and using the ditch as cover out-flanked the I.R.A. and attacked the rear. During the ensuing gun-battle four I.R.A. Volunteers were Killed:
Thomas McEver from Kinsale was killed by Crown Forces on the 20th of May 1921, he was a member of No.4 Brigade Galway, his killing was described as a brutal murder.
Thomas McKeever (McEver), aged 37, single and employed as a chemist in Stafford’s Medical Hall, Dunmore County Galway. Found shot dead in Clooneen about a mile from Dunmore. He was taken from his bed in the boarding house he was staying in at 3am by three armed men in civilian clothes. Reports stated that 10 to 12 gun shots were heard in the neighbourhood where his body was found. A notice found on his body stated ‘Convicted spy. Traitors beware. IRA.’
McEver had left Kinsale County Cork about October or November 1920 when he went to Galway he went under the name McKeever. He was due to return to Kinsale to get married.
There are two versions as to why McEver was killed. One is that he was a member of the Cork IRA and turned informer and had to flee Cork and the IRA caught up with him in Galway. The other is that he was a member of the IRA in Cork and because of too much attention from the RIC he fled to Galway to lay low but the RIC in Galway found out who he was and killed him.
Captain Thomas Mannion, Dunmore Company, IRA, states in his witness statement WS1408 that McEver was not a member of the Dunmore IRA. Mannion also states that he instructed his brother Martin Mannion also Dunmore IRA to have a mass said for McEver by the parish priest Dean Macken. Martin Mannion told the priest that McEver was not a spy and this was announced by the priest during the mass.
Mannion also states in his witness statement that McEver had bayonet wounds to his neck, the inquiry into McEver’s death stated he was shot twice in the head and up to nine time in the body. Mannion also states that he heard that McEver’s family were prominent in the Volunteers. An auction lot sold in Whytes Dublin (Auction Date/Lot No.: 14 March 2009/ 1460) containing a memorial card and photo of McEver’s grave also stated he was a member of the IRA.
On Monday the 23rd of May 1921 I.R.A. Volunteer John Brown was shot and fatally wounded when taking part in an ambush of an R.I.C. patrol at Skirdagh four miles north-east of Newport County Mayo. The I.R.A. had ambushed a group of twelve R.I.C. men lead by District Inspector. One Constable Joseph Maguire was killed. Brown was fatally wounded and died some time later in the County Infirmary Castlebar.
On the night 24th of May 1921 I.R.A. Volunteer Denis Broderick was shot and killed by British forces at Ballycarthy, Tralee, County Kerry. He was born in 1897, aged about 24 years old when he died. He worked as a farm labourer and was single. He was part of a party of I.R.A. Volunteers on their way to destroy Ballycarthy Bridge. British military were concealed in a wood nearby and opened fire on the I.R.A. party as they approached the bridge. Broderick, who was carrying a mine on his back, was shot through the head, he lay on the roadside before he succumbed to his injuries. It was reported that the death of her son had such an effect of his mother that she had to be treated in Killarney District Asylum.
The Customs House
The following I.R.A. men died in the attack on the Customs House:
Edward Dorins was shot dead in a battle near Talbot Street on the 25th of May 1921. He was part of a group involved in the burning of the Custom House. While keeping lookout with several other members of his Battalion they were confronted by a group of Black and Tans, in the ensuing battle Edward Dorins was mortally wounded and died in the street where he fell.
Edward Dorins was 22 years old and worked in the City as a plumber. He was a member of the 2nd Battalion Dublin Brigade I.R.A.
Edward Dorins was interred in Dean’s Grange cemetery, the inscription on his headstone reads.
Erected in loving memory of my son Edward Dorins.
Late I.R.A. Killed in Action at the Custom House on May 25th 1921.
Also his dear Father Thomas Dorins died 19th of January 1940 aged 76 years.
Seán Doyle was another member of the IRA killed in the attack on the Customs House On the 25th of May 1921. His brother Patrick Doyle was executed on the 14th of March 1921 for taking part in attack on Crown Forces in Drumcondra. Seán Doyle’s memorial in Glasnevin records the date of his death as the 30th of May 1921.
Dan Joseph Head (Heade) aged 17. He was employed as an Apprentice Carpenter from 3 Courtney Place, Ballybough Road, the eldest son of Michael Head a Carpenter, born Rathmines 1870 and Mary née Hammond born Dungarvan, Co Waterford 1878.
The Reilly family headstone in Glasnevin Cemetery Dublin
Lieutenant Stephen John Reilly (O'Reilly) was a 19 year old Commercial Traveller. He was the brother of Patrick O’Reilly killed in the same incident. It was believed he was a prisoner at Arbour Hill, it was not until the Friday when the family went to the George V hospital to collect the remains of Patrick that they identified the body of Stephen lying next to that of his brother.
Captain Patrick (Paddy). Employed as a Clerk at Arnott’s depertment store Dublin. Brother of Stephen Reilly. Although recorded as O'Reilly in almost all accounts of the incident the family headstone in Glasnevin records the family name as Reilly, the last name on the headstone added in 1982 records the addition of the O’.
Image Des White
The five men are commemorated on a memorial on Beresford Place/Memorial Road
Three other I.R.A. members were wounded in the Customs House attack
I.R.A. Commandant Jeremiah Hurley ( AKA Diarmuid Hurley) 4th Battalion, 1st Cork Brigade, I.R.A., was shot dead by a joint patrol of R.I.C. and Black and Tans. Travelling on foot between Midleton and Carrigtowhill was shot and killed at Ballyedmond, County Cork. Surprised by the police patrol, Hurley, well known in the area for his I.R.A. activities as leader of a Flying Column, he was pursued and shot dead by the patrol.
Thomas Murphy was shot by the Black and Tans on the morning of the 30th of May 1921. Employed as a part-time porter for the Dublin and South Eastern Railway and part-time driver for Sir Horace Plunkett Murphy was shot in his bedroom in the local hotel where he lived with his mother and sisters. He is buried in Deamsgrange Cemetery.
Thomas was a Corporal with the local I.R.A. and it is believed he was shot in reprisal for the shooting of a local policeman Albert Skeats at Cabinteely Barracks, constable Skeats had been in a coma for nearly two week and had died two days before Thomas Murphy was shot. Constable Skeats had been shot by another local I.R.A. activists Leo Murphy (not related).
In May 1921 I.R.A. Captain Patrick White was shot dead while attempting to escape from Spike Island prison. The circumstances of White’s death were somewhat controversial as many other prisoners claimed White was shot dead by a trigger-happy sentry.
On Saturday the 4th of June 1921 at 8am Thomas Keane was executed in Limerick Detention Barracks by firing squad, he was convicted of levying war and possession of arms. It was reported that after hearing Mass and receiving Holy Communion he walked to his death with fortitude and calmness. Outside large crowds including the deceased’s wife and mother assembled to pray for the repose of his soul. Hymns were sung and after the official word that the execution had taken place the crowd dispersed quietly. Keane was a railway worker and was married with two young children, they lived at 1 Moore Lane, Limerick.
On the 4th of June 1921 the Irish Independent Newspaper reported on the death of James McCarron who was killed when as part of a party of six men they attempted to ambush a party of Crown Forces returning to Ballybofey County Donegal by car from a fishing trip. The road was partially blocked and the ambushers opened fire on the car, the occupants of the car returned fire killing one attacker and wounding two.
Details were released by Crown Forces of an incident which occurred at a disused house of a man named Connor at Loughglynn Castlerea County Roscommon on Thursday about 5am. Crown Forces had surrounded the house, shots were fired from the house and in the exchange of fire with Crown Forces Miles Carty aged 24 was killed. Thomas Shannon aged 24 was seriously wounded, it was reported that a third man had escaped the scene.
On the 5th of June 1921 the body of IRA Volunteer John Cummins was found by the Military in a search at Ballyvoyle County Waterford. The Military were searching for arms after they had been ambushed. A military report stated a civilian appeared to be lying in a ditch with a firearm levelled in the direction of the approaching Military. Two shots were fired at the civilian by the military. When the Patrol reached the civilian it was found that life was extinct. The rifle was found to be loaded. Medical evidence showed that death was due to two bullet wounds, one in the region of the heart and one in the calf of the leg, death would have been instantaneous. A Military Court of Inquiry found that John Cummins was shot dead by Crown Forces in the act of offering armed resistance to the above mentioned force in the execution of their duty. John Cummins was aged 23 and from the Ballyvoyle area.
On Tuesday the 7th of June 1921 two men were executed in Mountjoy. The two were found guilty of the murder of RIC Sergeant Peter Wallace at Knocklong Railway Station County Limerick on May 14th 1919. The two men had been tried twice before for this crime but the jury in both occasions was unable to reach a verdict. Both men were found guilty and sentenced to death by a Military Court Martial. The two executed men were:
On the 15th of June 1921 the Meelick Company of the I.R.A. suffered a double blow when Captain Michael Gleeson was Killed in Action when engaging the Royal Scots Regiment at Burton Hill in Meelick another I.R.A. Captain, Christopher McCarthy, was killed in the same ambush. A small group of I.R.A. Volunteers attempted to ambush the Limerick to Ennis train, a Volunteer onboard the train failed to warn the ambushers that the British military were on the train, a small stone barricade had been constructed across the railway line, the British Soldiers, members of the Royal Scots Regiment, forced the driver to ram the barricade and the train continued to Cartloe station, passengers on the train were removed and the soldiers forced the driver to return to the ambush site where the military engaged the I.R.A.. Gleeson died in the opening burst of machine gun fire, McCarthy was captured by the British when he attempted to rescue Gleeson, McCarthy body was found after the ambush, his throat had been cut and he was shot several times at point-blank range.
On the 18th of June 1921 two I.R.A. men were killed and one wounded when they were lying in wait to ambush a British Army patrol at Coolbarw, Castlecomber, County Kilkenny. It was believed the Military had been tipped off about the ambush and outflanking the ambushers they mounted a surprise attack from behind.
On the 19th of June 1921 the ASU (Active Service Unit) of the Dun Laoghaire I.R.A. conducted an assassination attempt on British Military officers staying at the Royal Marine Hotel Dun Laoghaire. The Hotel was a long time billet for officers staying in Dun Laoghaire and had been used by General Maxwell during the 1916 Rising.
On the night of the 19th the I.R.A. enter the Hotel and came face to face with their targets. A gun battle ensued in which local I.R.A. man James McIntosh was fatally wounded. McIntosh managed to escape the Hotel but only managed to make it as far as Marine Road a short distance from the Hotel. He was taken to the local St. Michael’s Hospital where he died two days later on the 22nd of June 1921.
As the funeral procession left St. Michael’s Church Dun Laoghaire British Soldiers stopped the procession and removed a Tricolour from the coffin, a young lady grabbed the flag from the soldier a minor scuffle broke out and Black and Tans accompanying the Soldiers fired over the head of the mourners causing panic as people dived for cover.
The funeral procession managed to continue to Dean’s Grange Cemetery where James McIntosh was buried in the Republican Plot.
James McIntosh served with the Royal Dublin Fusiliers during World War 1, he was born in County Laois in 1885.He joined the Dublin Fusiliers on the 1st of October 1914.He was wounded during the battle of the Somme and was sent home on the 6th of July 1916. He was returned to France in December 1916 and was again seriously wounded during the battle of Passchendaele on the 11th of August 1917 and spent 131 days recovering in hospital in London. He was discharged medically unfit from the Army on the 23rd of February 1920.
On the 20th of June Edward Fox, Volunteer, 5th Battalion, Engineers Dublin Brigade, IRA died from wounds received on the 19th of June. He was drinking with Daniel Whelan in Corbett’s pub on South Cumberland Street, after closing time Whelan pulled a gun a shot Fox. It was alleged that Whelan was a spy and insane. The IRP (Irish Republican Police) investigated the matter and a trial was held at which Whelan was found not guilty. Whelan was committed to the Richmond Asylum and subsequently released.
John O’Meara a farmer’s son from Ballyhone County Tipperary was shot dead near Emly railway station County Tipperary on Tuesday the 21st of June 1921. It was reported that an R.I.C. Constable was searching O’Meara was when O’Meara grabbed the constable by the arms restricting his movement, O’Meara then called on a colleague to come to his aid. As O’Meara's colleague approach brandishing a Webley revolver the constable managed to free himself a drew his revolver, in the struggle O’Meara was shot dead and the constable and O’Meara's colleague engaged in a gun battle, both emptying their revolvers, the other man escaped. It was also reported that a search of O’Meara revealed he was carrying a five chamber revolver loaded with four sharp-nosed bullets. O’Meara who was 21 years old had served six months prison in 1920 for a political offence. O’Meara had served six months in Cork Jail but had been detained without charge or trial and had taken part in a hunger strike along with several other prisoners demanding their release.
Events of the shooting differed locally, it was reported that John O’Meara was climbing over a ditch when he was seen by three Black and Tans drinking in a nearby Public House, it was not known if O’Meara was armed at the time. His body was removed to the Public House and laid out on the counter.
On Wednesday the 22nd of June 1921 two I.R.A. Volunteers Edward Shannon aged 26 and John Vaughan aged 22 were shot dead by the R.I.C. at the home of Mrs Ellen Vaughan in Cloonsuck near Castlerea County Roscommon. Accounts of the deaths differ but the official account states that the as the R.I.C. approached the house a bomb was thrown. R.I.C. Sergeant King and Constable Jameson were slightly wounded. It was stated that after the bomb was thrown the R.I.C. returned fire and in the ensuing shooting Shannon was shot dead while Vaughan who was mortally wounded died within the hour. Two other I.R.A. Volunteers were arrested at the house, Thomas Vaughan aged 18 and Martin Ganly aged 26. It was reported that the two dead Volunteers were ‘on the run’ at the time of the incident and that revolvers and ammunition were recovered from the house after the raid.
Early on the morning of the 24th of June 1921 I.R.A. Volunteer Michael Dineen from the Kilcorney Company County Cork was taken prisoner by Auxiliaries in a round-up of I.R.A. suspects. He was picked up at his brother’s house Ivale, his body was later found at Tooreenbawn some three hundred yards from his home he had been shot after being tortured it was reported that his legs and arms were broken.
The memorial to Michael Dineen located near Kilcorney village in Co. Cork.
On Sunday the 26th of June 1921 during an attack on a vacant barrack at Roskean (Rooskey) County Roscommon shots were fired on the attackers when they were challenged by Police. Later that day the body of Volunteer William Connolly of Rooskey was found in a local house, Connolly had died from bullet wounds believed to have been inflicted during the attack on the barrack.
On Monday the 27th of June 1921 Thomas Nealon, Clydagh Ballycastle County Mayo was shot dead when he along with four other Volunteers had just finished a meal in a local ‘safe house’ . The house was surrounded by R.I.C. and Nealon was shot dead in the ensuing shoot-out. The other four Volunteers were captured along with what was reported to be several important documents.
On the 29 of June 1921 I.R.A. Volunteer died in action from a heart attack while he was taking part in a battle with the Black and Tans at Enrights’ Farm near Sixmilebridge. The Volunteer was Thomas Healy an ex member of the R.I.C. from Duagh in County Kerry. Healy had worked as a clerk for the district inspector of the R.I.C. in Ennis and had been supplying the I.R.A. with information but when his activities came under suspicion he retired from the R.I.C. and joined the I. R A.
On the 10th of July 1921 three I.R.A. Volunteers were Killed in Action when they ambushed a party of British Soldiers on Upper Main Street Castleisland County Kerry. One British Soldier was killed in the ambush. The three I.R.A. Volunteers were:
On Tuesday the 28th of July 1921 Stephen Geoghegan, an ex-British Soldier aged 26 and employed as a porter of 44 Bridgefoot Street Dublin died as a result of a bullet wound in Dr. Steeven’s Hospital. It was believed that Geoghegan received the fatal wound when taking part in an I.R.A. raid at Gallenstown and a revolved he attempted to fire misfired and caused the wound. A witness at the inquest, Peter Keenan, stated that he was on the raid with Geoghegan and the account given was the correct account.
I.R.A. man Frederick Fox was shot and mortally wounded by his I.R.A. comrade Francis Joseph Crumney of Raglan Street Belfast. The two I.R.A. men were on a surveillance mission when they were stopped by the police on Earlswood Road Belfast, a struggle ensued and one policeman, Constable Kane, was shot in the leg. The two I.R.A. men attempted to escape and in the chase Crumney shot Fox, Fox was mortally wounded and died a week later in hospital.
K.I.A. During the Ceasefire
On Friday the 9th of December at Thurles Railway Station county Tipperary a bomb was thrown at a large party of returning Internees from Ballykinlar Detention Camp. Declan Hurton (recorded in most newspapers as Hourton) was severely wounded, he died later from his injuries. He was a native of Ardmore County Waterford.
Na Fianna Éireann member Percy Hannifin died for wounds received when as part of a look-out detail guarding a meeting of I.R.A. men they engaged a party of Black and Tans who had parked a Crossley Tender on the street. During the exchange of fire Hannifin received a bullet wound to the head and died some days later on the 26th of January 1922.
On Saturday 11 February 1922 a gun battle at Clones Railway Station, County Monaghan, resulted in the deaths of four Ulster Special Constables and the local IRA commandant. A group of I.R.A. Volunteers attempted to ambush a party of Special Constabulary policemen, the I.R.A. entered the carriage and ordered the Specials to put their hand up, a shot rang out and I.R.A. Commandant Matthew Fitzpatrick fell dead. In the ensuing gun battle 4 of the Specials were killed.
On Tuesday the 21st of February 1922 2nd Lieutenant Joseph Duffy, D Company, 3rd Battalion, 1stNorthern Division, I.R.A. was shot dead at the home of retired British Army officer Leslie Huddleston. He was part of a party raiding for arms, while attempting to gain entry to the Huddleston household at Low/High Cairn, Ramelton, County Donegal the front door opened and one shot was fired hitting Duffy in the heart. Duffy was born in 1898 and from Milford County Donegal, he was employed as a labourer. It was stated by the I.R.A. that Duffy was engaged in an official raid for arms when he was shot and killed.
On Saturday 11 February 1922 a gun battle at Clones Railway Station, County Monaghan, resulted in the deaths of four Ulster Special Constables and the local IRA commandant. A group of I.R.A. Volunteers attempted to ambush a party of Special Constabulary policemen, the I.R.A. entered the carriage and ordered the Specials to put their hand up, a shot rang out and I.R.A. Commandant Matthew Fitzpatrick fell dead. In the ensuing gun battle 4 of the Specials were killed.
On the 24th of March 1922 Private John Fox, 3rd Southern Division, Óglaigh na hÉireann/National Forces died from Influenza and Pneumonia, cause of death attributed to service. He was born in 1913 and had joined the IRA in 1920 serving with the Terryglass Company, 1st Tipperary Brigade IRA during the War of Independence. He was from Borrisokane County Tipperary.
I.R.A. Volunteer Daniel Byrne died from wounds received when a rifle he found in the abandoned Gorey, County Wexford R.I.C. Barracks exploded when he tried to fire the weapon. Byrne was from Coolnaleen, Ferns. He was 42 years old, married with three children.
On the 11th of April Volunteer Michael O'Neill, D Company, 2nd Battalion, Mid Limerick Brigade died at Barrington’s Hospital, Limerick from the effects of a gunshot wound accidentally received by him on the 9th of April 1922 from a fellow member of the IRA, named as John Hogan, at the New Barracks, Limerick during the Truce Period. At the time of his wounding he was serving as a member of the IRA garrison at that barracks. Michael O’Neill had served with the Irish Volunteers and IRA from January 1919 and during the War of Independence and Truce Period.
On Wednesday the 19th of April 1922 two IRA Volunteerswere killed at Kealkil West Cork, the dead men were named as:
On Wednesday the 26th of April 1922 Fianna Éireann Volunteer Henry O’Connor aged 22 died as a result of a gunshot wound received when a party of Fianna Éireann went to a house in the Ferns District of Enniscorthy County Wexford. The Fianna party were acting on information that a local Orangeman had firearms and ammunition at his address. The inquiry into O’Connor’s death heard that when the occupants of the house refused to open the door O’Connor began banging on the door, a shot was heard and O’Connor fell wounded. It was suggested that O’Connor was killed when he accidently discharged the rifle when banging on the door, the medical examiner stated he believed this to be impossible due to the entry point of the bullet. The Jury at the inquiry held by Officers of the I.R.A. Executive at Enniscorthy found that O’Connor had died as a result of a bullet accidently discharged from a rifle.
On the 26th of April I.R.A. Commandant Michael O’Neill died as a result of wounds received when he was engaged in raiding the house of a local loyalist in Ballygroman County Cork. O’Neill was attempting to take a car belonging to Thomas Hornibrook, the I.R.A. entered Hornibrook’s house in an attempt to get the magneto (the magneto was a part which could be removed from the car to prevent it being stolen). The three men in the house at the time who refused to give the Magneto to the I.R.A. were Thomas and his son Samuel Hornibrook and his son in law Herbert Woods. O’Neill was from Maraboro, Kilbrittain County Cork. A local inquest held into the killing of O’Neill found he had been ‘wilfully murdered in the execution of his lawful duty', Herbert Woods was found to be responsible for firing the fatal shots. For more on this event see The Killings in Ballyroman in the Civilians Killed in War of Independence page.
On the 8th of May 1922 eight or nine men called to the house of Samuel J. Milligan aged 18, a member of the “B” Specials, who lived at Castleecauifield County Tyrone. Milligan died as a result of wounds revived in the attack. After the attack the body of one of the attackers, 19 year old Owen Mcgill, was found near the scene, he had a shotgun and two Mills Bombs. The Commissioner at the Inquest into his death expressed the view that Magill had been forced to take part in the attack, Mcgill died from bullet wounds to the heart.
On Friday the 12th of May 1922 Patrick Tubridy (Tubriddy) aged 18 and a member of Fianna Éireann died in Barrington’s Hospital Limerick from a bullet wound in the throat, he was admitted to the hospital on Thursday. An inquest into his death returned a verdict of accidental death due to the accidental discharge of a comrade’s revolver at Frederick Street Barracks. The inquest was held at Barrington’s Hospital Limerick where Tubridy was taken after the accident.
On the 12th of May 1921 Battalion Commandant John Morrissey, 7th Battalion, Waterford Brigade, IRA. He was accidentally shot and killed by a comrade on. Morrissey was guarding a prisoner at the time at The Lodge, Lackendarra, County Waterford. It was reported by the inquest that Morrissey was accidentally shot by William Queally, Quartermaster, 7 Battalion, IRA.
On Monday morning of the 29th of May 1922 a member of the Anti Treaty forces was shot dead by the Royal Irish Constabulary at Gormanston County Meath. With a party of other the victim had been waiting for a train at the station when challenged by the police man, a gun battle ensued in which the victim was shot, he was named as:
On the 17th of June 1922 Hugh Morrison. A Company, 1st Brigade, 1st Northern Division, IRA died in Lifford Infirmary, County Donegal from the effects of an accidental explosion which took place the previous day at Skeog, County Donegal. He was testing bombs when the explosion took place. He was born in 1900 and employed as an Apprentice engineer. He had served with the Volunteers/IRA from 1919 and was from Derry.
On the 20th of June William Thornton, C Company, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Northern Division, was shot dead when 4 men from C Company was sent to burn down the Cotton Oil Store, Glouchester Street, Belfast. The Specials were to occupy the warehouse as a barracks. Thornton and another entered the building and were in the process of setting the fire when they were surprised by a large force of Specials. During the ensuing gun battle Thornton became trapped in a window and was riddled with bullets. Thornton served as a Lance-Corporal with the British Army, he was discharged on the 24th of May 1921. He was born in 1899.
After an alleged ambush on soldiers of the East Yorkshire Regiment on Friday the 26th of June 1922 ‘Specials’ from Ballymena arrived in the seaside town of Cushendall and in what was described as an orgy of violence 3 men were killed. At the time it was claimed by locals that no ambush had taken place and none of the young men killed he any political or military connections.
James McAllister Section Commander, C Company, 3rd Battalion, Antrim Brigade, IRA. In a statement made by Lieutenant F J Tully AG’s Department, GHQ he stated that McAlister was a member of the IRA and that during the raid on Cushendall McAlister was beaten with the butt end of rifles and kicked up and down the street until he was unrecognisable then shot in the mouth and dumped in an outhouse. James McAllister was born in 1903 and was 18 years old when he died, he was employed as a farm labourer.
John Hill. Volunteer, 4th Battalion, 2 Brigade (Antrim Brigade), IRA. Born in 1891 and employed as a Motor Driver. John Hill’s father was refused compensation by the Irish government because it was deemed his son “…did not receive any wound or injury while engaged in Military Service.” John Hill was awarded a posthumous Service (1917-1921) Medal.
A civilian, John Gore aged 22 from Ashbrook, Cushendall, was killed in the same incident.
On the 30th of June William Spillane Lieutenant, G Company, 2nd Battalion, 1st Cork Brigade, was accidently shot by a comrade, he was 21 years old and the son of James and Hannah Spillane of Bandon Road Cork. He had served as Captain with the 5th Cork Brigade during the War of Independence. He is buried in the Republican plot, Saint Finbarr’s Cemetery Cork.
On Saturday the 16th of September 1922 Anthony Dean, a civilian attached to the Criminal Investigations Department at Oriel House was shot dead when two armed men enter Oriel House on the pretence of reporting a stolen car. When the two men had gained entry they opened fire with two Webley revolvers. Dean was hit once and died instantly from his wounds. Dean was unmarried and was 27 years old.
On the night of Monday the 13th of October 1922 Civic Guard Henry Phelan 1347 stationed at Callan was shot dead in Mollinahone County Tipperary. Phelan, with two other Civic Guards, had cycled to Mollinahone to buy a Hurley ball, they stopped off at Miss Mulhall’s Public House for some refreshments. Soon after the three Civic Guards had entered the Public House when a group of armed men entered shouting ‘Hands Up’ as the armed men were shouting ‘Hand Up’ a shot was fired and Phelan fell mortally wounded, the bullet entered the lower part of his left jaw and exited through the back of his neck his spinal cord being severed. Unknown to Phelan and the other tow Civic Guards the Public House was a well know anti-treaty establishment, Miss Mulhall’s son was a member of Na Fianna. Phelan was a native of Mountrath where he was buried.
On the 23rd of August 1923 Patrick Joseph McBride, Company Intelligence Officer, GHQ Staff, IRA, died from tuberculosis, he death was deemed to have been due to his service with the IRA. During the treaty negotiations he was employed as a courier between Dublin and London. He was refused entry to the United States of America due to tuberculosis before travelling to Switzerland. Liam Tobin states that from the Truce to the time the delegation went to London McBride was entrusted with very important work, "which I do not consider it advisable to disclose." Tobin claims in letter dated 7 April 1954, that Michael Collins had McBride medically examined by Dr Robert McLarenty. He was a member of Intelligence staff GHQ, Brunswick Street up to December 1921. During the War of Independence he was employed as an Auditor's clerk and served as Adjutant, C Company, 3rd Battalion, Dublin Brigade. IRA. He was born in 1897.
On Friday the 19th of October 1923 C.I.D. Driver was shot dead during an armed raid on Ashtown Candle Factory, Castleknock. Three soldiers of the National Army held up staff at the factory and stole £40. One of the soldiers, William Downes, was executed in Mountjoy and another was shot dead while fleeing from pursuing police.
On the 7th of November 1922 I.R.A. Volunteer John Sharry died of wounds received while fighting the Black and Tans during the War of Independence. He had been injured near Moymore Church County Clare. He was born in Liscannor and had been a member of the Volunteers since 1917.
On the 7th of March 1925 Captain James Morrissey, 1st Waterford Battalion, IRA died from toxaemia in Dr Steeven's Hospital, Dublin. The Army Pensions Board were of the opinion that death was attributable to injury sustained in November 1921 while interned in Bere Island. He was employed as a labourer and from Kilkenny.